Smoking Cessation: Articles Used in Guideline Meta-Analyses

Listed below are the reference citations used to develop the meta-analyses tables for the
Clinical Practice Guideline on
Smoking Cessation, Number 18.
The references are
grouped
to correspond to tables and/or chapters contained in the guideline.


Table 2. Efficacy of and Cessation Rates for Various Durations of
Treatment

British Thoracic Society. Smoking cessation in patients: Two further studies
by the British Thoracic Society. Thorax 1990 Nov;45:835-40.

Bronson DL, Flynn BS, Solomon LJ, Vacek P, Saucer-Walker RH. Smoking cessation
counseling during periodic health examinations. Arch Intern Med 1989
Jul;149:1653-6.

Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking
cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture–A controlled study. Behav Res
Ther 1983;21:417-24.

Curry SJ, Marlatt GA, Gordon J, Baer JS. A comparison of alternative
theoretical approaches to smoking cessation and relapse. Health Psychol
1988;7:545-56.

Decker BD, Evans RG. Efficacy of a minimal contact version of a multimodal
smoking cessation program. Addict Behav 1989;14:487- 91.

Demers RY, Neale AV, Adams R, Trembath C, Herman SC. The impact of physicians’
brief smoking cessation counseling: A MIRNET study. J Fam Pract 1990
Dec;31:625-9.

Gillams J, Lewith GT, Machin D. Acupuncture and group therapy in stopping
smoking. Practitioner 1984 Mar;228:341-4.

Ginsberg D, Hall SM, Rosinski M. Partner support, psychological treatment, and
nicotine gum in smoking treatment: An incremental study. Int J Addict 1992
May;27:503-14.

Gruder CL, Mermelstein RJ, Kirkendol S, Hedeker D, Wong SC, Schreckengost J et
al. Effects of social support and relapse prevention training as adjuncts to a
televised smoking-cessation intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol
1993;61:113-20.

Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Delcore MG, Lucas BD Jr. Randomized, controlled
trial of transdermal clonidine for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother 1993
Sep;27:1025-8.

Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Mount K, Vogt TM, Stevens VJ. Nurse-assisted
smoking counseling in medical settings: Minimizing demands on physicians. Prev
Med 1991;20:497-507.

Huber D. Combined and separate treatment effects of nicotine chewing gum and
self-control method. Pharmacopsychiatry 1988;21: 461-2.

Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, Van Vunakis H. Controlled
trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med
J 1984 May;288:1499-1503.

Kendrick JS, Zahniser SC, Miller N, Salas N, Stine J, Gargiullo PM et al.
Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: Results of
the smoking cessation in pregnancy project. Am J Public Health
1995;85:217-222.

Lambe R, Osier C, Franks P. A randomized controlled trial of hypnotherapy for
smoking cessation. J Fam Pract 1986 Jan;22:61-5.

Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone
outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. Am
J Public Health 1992 Jan;82: 41-6.

Langford ER, Thompson EG, Tripp SC. Smoking and health education during
pregnancy: Evaluation of a program for women in prenatal classes. Can J Public
Health 1983 Jul;74:285-9.

Leung JP. Smoking cessation by auricular acupuncture and behavioral therapy.
Psychologia Intl J Psychol Orient 1991;34:177-87.

MacArthur C, Newton JR, Knox EG. Effect of anti-smoking health education on
infant size at birth: A randomized controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1987
Apr;94:295-300.

Marshall A, Raw M. Nicotine chewing gum in general practice: Effect of follow
up appointments. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985 May;290:1397-8.

Mayer JP, Hawkins B, Todd R. A randomized evaluation of smoking cessation
interventions for pregnant women at a WIC clinic. Am J Public Health 1990
Jan;80:76-8.

Mogielnicki RP, Neslin S, Dulac J, Balestra D, Gillie EC,J. Tailored media can
enhance the success of smoking cessation clinics. J Behav Med 1986
Apr;9:141-61.

Mothersill KJ, McDowell I, Rosser W. Subject characteristics and long term
post-program smoking cessation. Addict Behav 1988;13:29-36.

Nebot M, Cabezas C. Does nurse counseling or offer of nicotine gum improve the
effectiveness of physician smoking-cessation advice? Fam Pract Res J 1992
Sep;12: 263-70.

Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Pbert L, Hebert JR, Luippold R, Goldbert RJ et al.
The physician-delivered smoking intervention project: Can short-term
interventions produce long-term effects for a general outpatient population?
Health Psychol 1994;13:278- 81.

Ockene JK, Kristeller JL, Goldberg R, Ockene I, Merriam P, Barrett S et al.
Smoking cessation and severity of disease: The Coronary Artery Smoking
Intervention Study. Health Psychol 1992;11:119-26.

O’Connor AM, Davies BL, Dulberg CS, Buhler PL, Nadon C, McBride BH et al.
Effectiveness of a pregnancy smoking cessation program. J Obstet Gynecol
Neonatal Nurs 1992 Sep;21:385-92.

Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC et al.
Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social
support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991
Jun;59:439-48.

Page AR, Walters DJ, Schlegel RP, Best JA. Smoking cessation in family
practice: The effects of advice and nicotine chewing gum prescription. Addict
Behav 1986;11:443-6.

Patel C, Marmot MG, Terry DJ, et al. Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary
risk: Four year follow up. Br Med J 1985 Apr;290:1103-6.

Pederson LL, Wanklin JM, Lefcoe NM. The effects of counseling on smoking
cessation among patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Addict 1991 Jan;26:107-19.

Rabkin SW, Boyko E, Shane F, Kaufert J. A randomized trial comparing smoking
cessation programs utilizing behavior modification, health education or
hypnosis. Addict Behav 1984;9:157-73.

Reid DD, Brett GZ, Hamilton PJS, Jarrett RJ, Keen H, Rose G. Cardiorespiratory
disease and diabetes among middle-aged male civil servants. Lancet 1974
Mar;469-73.

Richmond RL, Austin A, Webster IW. Three year evaluation of a programme by
general practitioners to help patients to stop smoking. Br Med J 1986
Mar;292:803-6.

Richmond RL, Webster IW. A smoking cessation programme for use in general
practice. Med J Aust 1985 Feb;142:190-4.

Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum
as an adjunct to general practitioners’ advice against smoking. Br Med J 1983
Dec;287:1782-5.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.

Sanders D, Fowler G, Mant D, Fuller A, Jones L, Marzillier J. Randomized
controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in general practice. J R
Coll Gen Pract 1989 Jul;39:273-6.

Sexton M, Hebel JR. A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its
effect on birth weight. JAMA 1984 Feb;251:911-5.

Shaughnessy AF, Davis RE, Reeder E. Nicotine chewing gum: Effectiveness and
the influence of patient education in a family practice. J Fam Pract
1987;25:266-9.

Sivarajan ES, Newton KM, Almes MJ, Kempf TM, Mansfield LW, Bruce RA. The
patient after myocardial infarction. Limited effects of outpatient teaching
and counseling after myocardial infarction: A controlled study. Heart Lung
1983 Jan;12:65-73.

Slama K, Redman S, Perkins J, Reid AL, Sanson-Fisher RW. The effectiveness of
two smoking cessation programmes for use in general practice: A randomised
clinical trial. Br Med J 1990 Jun;300:1707-9.

Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Vogt TM. A
smoking-cessation intervention for hospital patients. Med Care 1993
Jan;31:65-72.

Stewart PJ, Rosser WW. The impact of routine advice on smoking cessation from
family physicians. Can Med Assoc J 1982 May;126:1051-4.

Taylor CB, Houston-Miller N, Killen JD, DeBusk RF. Smoking cessation after
acute myocardial infarction: Effects of a nurse- managed intervention. Ann
Intern Med 1990 Jul;113:118-23.

Valbo A, Nylander G. Smoking cessation in pregnancy. Intervention among heavy
smokers. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1994 Mar;73:215-9.

Vetter NJ, Ford D. Smoking prevention among people aged 60 and over: A
randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1990 May;19:164-8.

Weissfeld JL, Holloway JL. Treatment for cigarette smoking in a Department of
Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic. Arch Intern Med 1991 May;151:973-7.

Williams JM, Hall DW. Use of single session hypnosis for smoking cessation.
Addict Behav 1988;13:205-8.

Wilson DM, Taylor DW, Gilbert JR, Best JA, Lindsay EA, Willms DG et al. A
randomized trial of a family physician intervention for smoking cessation.
JAMA 1988 Sep;260:1570-4.

Wilson DH, Wakefield MA, Steven ID, Rohrsheim RA, Esterman AJ, Graham NMH.
“Sick of Smoking” evaluation of a targeted minimal smoking cessation
intervention in general practice. Med J Aust 1990 May;152:518-21.

Wilson D, Wood G, Johnston N, Sicurella J. Randomized clinical trial of
supportive follow-up for cigarette smokers in a family practice. Can Med Assoc
J 1982 Jan;126:127-9.

Windsor RA, Cutter G, Morris J, Reese Y, Manzella B, Bartlett EE et al. The
effectiveness of smoking cessation methods for smokers in public health
maternity clinics: A randomized trial. Am J Public Health 1985 Dec;75:1389-92.

Windsor RA, Lowe JB, Bartlett EE. The effectiveness of a worksite self-help
smoking cessation program: A randomized trial. J Behav Med 1988 Aug;11:407-21.

Windsor RA, Lowe JB, Perkins LL, Smith-Yoder D, Artz L, Crawford M et al.
Health education for pregnant smokers: Its behavioral impact and cost benefit.
Am J Public Health 1993 Feb;83:201-6.


Table 4. Impact of Having a Smoking Status Identification System in
Place on the Rates that Clinicians Intervene with their Patients who
Smoke

Cohen SJ, Christen AG, Katz BP, Drook CA, Davis BJ, Smith DM et al. Counseling
medical and dental patients about cigarette smoking: the impact of nicotine
gum and chart reminders. Am J Public Health 1987 Mar;77:313-6. (treated as two
studies)

Dietrich AJ, O’Connor GT, Keller A, Carney PA, Levy D, Whaley FS. Cancer:
Improving early detection and prevention. A community practice randomized
trial. Br Med J 1992;304:687-91.

Fiore MC, Jorenby DE, Schensky AE, Smith SS, Bauer RR, Baker TB. Smoking
status as the new vital sign: Impact on assessment and intervention with
patients who smoke. Mayo Clin Proc 1995 Mar;70:209-13.

Hahn DL, Berger MG. Implementation of a systematic health maintenance protocol
in a private practice. J Fam Pract 1990;31:492-504.

Kottke TE, Solberg LI, Brekke ML, Conn SA, Maxwell P, Brekke MJ. A controlled
trial to integrate smoking cessation advice into primary care practice:
Doctors helping smokers, round III. J Fam Pract 1992;34:701-8.

McIlvain HE, Susman JL, Manners MA, Davis CM, Gilbert CS. Improving smoking
cessation counseling by family practice residents. J Fam Pract 1992;34:745-9.

Robinson MD, Laurent SL, Little JM Jr. Including smoking status as a new vital
sign: It works! J Fam Pract 1995 Jun;40:556-61.

Strecher VJ, O’Malley MS, Villagra VG, Campbell EE, Gonzalez JJ, Irons TG et
al. Can residents be trained to counsel patients about quitting smoking?
Results from a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med 1991 Jan;6:9-17.


Table 5. The Impact of Having a Smoking Status Identification System
in Place on the Rates of Cessation among Patients Who Smoke

Cohen SJ, Christen AG, Katz BP, Drook CA, Davis BJ, Smith DM et al. Counseling
medical and dental patients about cigarette smoking: the impact of nicotine
gum and chart reminders. Am J Public Health 1987 Mar;77:313-6. (treated as two
studies)

Strecher VJ, O’Malley MS, Villagra VG, Campbell EE, Gonzalez JJ, Irons TG et
al. Can residents be trained to counsel patients about quitting smoking?
Results from a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med 1991 Jan;6:9-17.


Table 6. Efficacy of Advice to Quit by a Clinician

Demers RY, Neale AV, Adams R, Trembath C, Herman SC. The impact of physicians’
brief smoking cessation counseling: A MIRNET study. J Fam Pract 1990
Dec;31:625-9.

Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, Van Vunakis H. Controlled
trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med
J 1984 May;288:1499-1503.

Page AR, Walters DJ, Schlegel RP, Best JA. Smoking cessation in family
practice: The effects of advice and nicotine chewing gum prescription. Addict
Behav 1986;11:443-6.

Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum
as an adjunct to general practitioners’ advice against smoking. Br Med J 1983
Dec;287:1782-5.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.

Slama K, Redman S, Perkins J, Reid AL, Sanson-Fisher RW. The effectiveness of
two smoking cessation programmes for use in general practice: A randomised
clinical trial. Br Med J 1990 Jun;300:1707-9.

Stewart PJ, Rosser WW. The impact of routine advice on smoking cessation from
family physicians. Can Med Assoc J 1982 May;126:1051-4.



Table 8. Efficacy of and Estimated Cessation Rates for Interventions
Delivered by Various Types of Providers

British Thoracic Society. Smoking cessation in patients: two further studies
by the British Thoracic Society. Thorax 1990:45:835-840.

Bronson DL, Flynn BS, Solomon LJ, Vacek P, Secker-Walker RH. Smoking cessation
counseling during periodic health examinations. Arch Intern Med 1989
Jul;149:1653-6.

Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking
cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture–A controlled study. Behav Res
Ther 1983;21:417-24.

Curry SJ, Marlatt GA, Gordon J, Baer JS. A comparison of alternative
theoretical approaches to smoking cessation and relapse. Health Psychol
1988;7:545-56.

Davies BL, Matte-Lewis MBL, O’Connor AM, Dulberg CS, Drake ER. Evaluation of
the “Time to Quit” self-help smoking cessation program. Can J Public Health
1992 Jan;83:19-23.

Decker BD, Evans RG. Efficacy of a minimal contact version of a multimodal
smoking cessation program. Addict Behav 1989;14:487- 91.

Demers RY, Neale AV, Adams R, Trembath C, Herman SC. The impact of physicians’
brief smoking cessation counseling: A MIRNET study. J Fam Pract 1990
Dec;31:625-9.

Gruder CL, Mermelstein RJ, Kirkendol S, Hedeker D, Wong SC, Schreckengost J et
al. Effects of social support and relapse prevention training as adjuncts to a
televised smoking-cessation intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol
1993;61:113-20.

Hughes GH, Hymowitz N, Ockene JK, Simon N, Vogt TM. The Multiple Risk Factor
Intervention Trial (MRFIT). V. Intervention on smoking. Prev Med 1981
Jul;10:476-500.

Hymowitz N, Campbell K, Feuerman M. Long-term smoking intervention at the
worksite: Effects of quit-smoking groups and an enriched milieu on smoking
cessation in adult white-collar employees. Health Psychol 1991;10:366-9.

Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, Van Vunakis H. Controlled
trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med
J 1984 May;288:1499-1503.

Kendrick JS, Zahniser SC, Miller N, Salas N, Stine J, Gargiullo PM et al.
Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: Results of
the smoking cessation in pregnancy project. Am J Public Health
1995;85:217-222.

Lambe R, Osier C, Franks P. A randomized controlled trial of hypnotherapy for
smoking cessation. J Fam Pract 1986 Jan;22:61-5.

Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone
outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. Am
J Public Health 1992 Jan;82:41-6.

Langford ER, Thompson EG, Tripp SC. Smoking and health education during
pregnancy: Evaluation of a program for women in prenatal classes. Can J Public
Health 1983 Jul;74:285-289.

Leung JP. Smoking cessation by auricular acupuncture and behavioral therapy.
Psychologia Intl J Psychol Orient 1991;34:177-87.

Mayer JP, Hawkins B, Todd R. A randomized evaluation of smoking cessation
interventions for pregnant women at a WIC clinic. Am J Public Health 1990
Jan;80:76-8.

Mogielnicki RP, Neslin S, Dulac J, Balestra D, Gillie E, Corson J. Tailored
media can enhance the success of smoking cessation clinics. J Behav Med 1986
Apr;9:141-61.

Mothersill KJ, McDowell I, Rosser W. Subject characteristics and long term
post-program smoking cessation. Addict Behav 1988;13:29-36.

Nebot M, Cabezas C. Does nurse counseling or offer of nicotine gum improve the
effectiveness of physician smoking- cessation advice? Fam Pract Res J 1992
Sep;12:263-70.

Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC et al.
Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social
support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991
Jun;59:439-48.

Ossip-Klein DJ, Giovino GA, Megahed N, Black PM, Emont SL, Stiggins J et al.
Effects of a smoker’s hotline: Results of a 10- county self-help trial. J
Consult Clin Psychol 1991;59:325-32.

Page AR, Walters DJ, Schlegel RP, Best JA. Smoking cessation in family
practice: The effects of advice and nicotine chewing gum prescription. Addict
Behav 1986;11:443-6.

Pederson LL, Wanklin JM, Lefcoe NM. The effects of counseling on smoking
cessation among patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Addict 1991 Jan;26:107-19.

Rabkin SW, Boyko E, Shane F, Kaufert J. A randomized trial comparing smoking
cessation programs utilizing behavior modification, health education or
hypnosis. Addict Behav 1984;9:157-73.

Reid DD, Brett GZ, Hamilton PJS, Jarrett RJ, Keen H, Rose G. Cardiorespiratory
disease and diabetes among middle-aged male civil servants. Lancet 1974
Mar;:469-73.

Richmond RL, Austin A, Webster IW. Three year evaluation of a programme by
general practitioners to help patients to stop smoking. Br Med J 1986
Mar;292:803-6.

Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum
as an adjunct to general practitioners’ advice against smoking. Br Med J 1983
Dec;287:1782-5.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.

Sanders D, Fowler G, Mant D, Fuller A, Jones L, Marzillier J. Randomized
controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in general practice. J R
Coll Gen Pract 1989 Jul;39:273-6.

Sawicki PT, Didjurgeit U, Muhlhauser I, Berger M. Behaviour therapy versus
doctor’s anti-smoking advice in diabetic patients. J Intern Med 1993
Oct;234:407-9.

Sexton M, Hebel JR. A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its
effect on birth weight. JAMA 1984 Feb;251:911-5.

Shaughnessy AF, Davis RE, Reeder E. Nicotine chewing gum: Effectiveness and
the influence of patient education in a family practice. J Fam Pract
1987;25:266-9.

Sivarajan ES, Newton KM, Almes MJ, Kempf TM, Mansfield LW, Bruce RA. The
patient after myocardial infarction. Limited effects of outpatient teaching
and counseling after myocardial infarction: A controlled study. Heart Lung
1983 Jan;12:65-73.

Slama K, Redman S, Perkins J, Reid AL, Sanson-Fisher RW. The effectiveness of
two smoking cessation programmes for use in general practice: A randomised
clinical trial. Br Med J 1990 Jun;300:1707-9.

Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Vogt TM. A
smoking-cessation intervention for hospital patients. Med Care 1993
Jan;31:65-72.

Stewart PJ, Rosser WW. The impact of routine advice on smoking cessation from
family physicians. Can Med Assoc J 1982 May;126:1051-4.

Taylor CB, Houston-Miller N, Killen JD, DeBusk RF. Smoking cessation after
acute myocardial infarction: Effects of a nurse- managed intervention. Ann
Intern Med 1990 Jul;113:118-23.

Vetter NJ, Ford D. Smoking prevention among people aged 60 and over: A
randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1990 May;19:164-8.

Weissfeld JL, Holloway JL. Treatment for cigarette smoking in a Department of
Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic. Arch Intern Med 1991 May;151:973-7.

Williams JM, Hall DW. Use of single session hypnosis for smoking cessation.
Addict Behav 1988;13:205-8.


Table 9. Efficacy of and Estimated Cessation Rates for Various
Formats

Campbell IA, Hansford M, Prescott RJ. Effect of a “Stop Smoking” booklet on
smokers attending for chest radiography: A controlled study. Thorax 1986
May;41:369-71.

Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking
cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture–A controlled study. Behav Res
Ther 1983;21:417-24.

Decker BD, Evans RG. Efficacy of a minimal contact version of a multimodal
smoking cessation program. Addict Behav 1989;14:487- 91.

Gillams J, Lewith GT, Machin D. Acupuncture and group therapy in stopping
smoking. Practitioner 1984 Mar;228:341-4.

Gritz ER, Berman BA, Bastani R, Wu M. A randomized trial of a self-help
smoking cessation intervention in a nonvolunteer female population: Testing
the limits of the public health model. Health Psychol 1992;11:280-9.

Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Delcore MG, Lucas BD Jr. Randomized, controlled
trial of transdermal clonidine for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother 1993
Sep;27:1025-8.

Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, Van Vunakis H. Controlled
trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med
J 1984 May;288:1499-1503.

Kendrick JS, Zahniser SC, Miller N, Salas N, Stine J, Gargiullo PM et al.
Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: Results of
the smoking cessation in pregnancy project. Am J Public Health
1995;85:217-222.

Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone
outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. Am
J Public Health 1992 Jan;82:41-6.

Langford ER, Thompson EG, Tripp SC. Smoking and health education during
pregnancy: Evaluation of a program for women in prenatal classes. Can J Public
Health 1983 Jul;74:285-289.

Leung JP. Smoking cessation by auricular acupuncture and behavioral therapy.
Psychologia Intl J Psychol Orient 1991;34:177-87.

Mogielnicki RP, Neslin S, Dulac J, Balestra D, Gillie E Corson J. Tailored
media can enhance the success of smoking cessation clinics. J Behav Med 1986
Apr;9:141-61.

Mothersill KJ, McDowell I, Rosser W. Subject characteristics and long term
post-program smoking cessation. Addict Behav 1988;13:29-36.

Page AR, Walters DJ, Schlegel RP, Best JA. Smoking cessation in family
practice: The effects of advice and nicotine chewing gum prescription. Addict
Behav 1986;11:443-6.

Pallonen UE, Leskinen L, Prochaska JO, Willey CJ, Kaariainen R, Salonen JT. A
2-year self-help smoking cessation manual intervention among middle-aged
Finnish men: An application of the transtheoretical model. Prev Med
1994;23:507-14.

Rabkin SW, Boyko E, Shane F, Kaufert J. A randomized trial comparing smoking
cessation programs utilizing behaviour modification, health education or
hypnosis. Addict Behav 1984;9:157-73.

Reid DD, Brett GZ, Hamilton PJS, Jarrett RJ, Keen H, Rose G. Cardiorespiratory
disease and diabetes among middle-aged male civil servants. Lancet 1974
Mar;:469-73.

Richmond RL, Austin A, Webster IW. Three year evaluation of a programme by
general practitioners to help patients to stop smoking. Br Med J 1986
Mar;292:803-6.

Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum
as an adjunct to general practitioners’ advice against smoking. Br Med J 1983
Dec;287:1782-5.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.

Sanders D, Fowler G, Mant D, Fuller A, Jones L, Marzillier J. Randomized
controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in general practice. J R
Coll Gen Pract 1989 Jul;39:273-6.

Slama K, Redman S, Perkins J, Reid AL, Sanson-Fisher RW. The effectiveness of
two smoking cessation programmes for use in general practice: A randomised
clinical trial. Br Med J 1990 Jun;300:1707-9.

Stewart PJ, Rosser WW. The impact of routine advice on smoking cessation from
family physicians. Can Med Assoc J 1982 May;126:1051-4.

Vetter NJ, Ford D. Smoking prevention among people aged 60 and over: A
randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1990 May;19:164-8.

Williams JM, Hall DW. Use of single session hypnosis for smoking cessation.
Addictive Behaviors 1988;13:205-208.


Table 10. Efficacy of and Cessation Rates for Various Types of Self-
Help Formats When Used Alone

British Thoracic Society. Comparison of four methods of smoking withdrawal in
patients with smoking related diseases. British Medical Journal 1983;286:595-597.

Campbell IA, Hansford M, Prescott RJ. Effect of a “Stop Smoking” booklet on
smokers attending for chest radiography: A controlled study. Thorax 1986
May;41:369-71.

Campbell IA, Lyons E, Prescott RJ. Stopping smoking: Do nicotine chewing-gum
and postal encouragement add to doctor’s advice. Practitioner 1987
Jan;231:114-7.

Davis AL, Faust R, Ordentlich M. Self-help smoking cessation and maintenance
programs: A comparative study with 12-month follow-up by the American Lung
Association. Am J Public Health 1984 Nov;74:1212-7.

Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N. Work-site cardiovascular risk
reduction: A randomized trial of health risk assessment, education,
counseling, and incentives. Am J Public Health 1993 Sep;83:1231-8.

Gritz ER, Berman BA, Bastani R, Wu M. A randomized trial of a self-help
smoking cessation intervention in a nonvolunteer female population: Testing
the limits of the public health model. Health Psychol 1992;11:280-9.

Li VC, Coates TJ, Spielberg LA, Ewart CK, Dorfman S, Huster WJ. Smoking
cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: The impact of
physician messages and waiting room media. Prev Med 1984 Sep;13:477-89.

Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC et al.
Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social
support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991
Jun;59:439-48.

Ossip-Klein DJ, Giovino GA, Megahed N, Black PM, Emont SL, Stiggins J et al.
Effects of a smoker’s hotline: Results of a 10- county self-help trial. J
Consult Clin Psychol 1991;59:325-32.

Pederson LL, Lefcoe NM, Wood T. Use of a self-help smoking cessation manual as
an adjunct to advice from a respiratory specialist. . Int J Addict (US)
1983;18:777-782.

Petersen L, Handel J, Kotch J, Podedworny T, Rosen A. Smoking reduction during
pregnancy by a program of self-help and clinical support. Obstet Gynecol 1992
Jun;79:924-30.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.


Table 11. Efficacy of Multiple Types of Self-Help Materials

British Thoracic Society. Comparison of four methods of smoking withdrawal in
patients with smoking related diseases. British Medical Journal 1983;286:595-597.

Campbell IA, Hansford M, Prescott RJ. Effect of a “Stop Smoking” booklet on
smokers attending for chest radiography: A controlled study. Thorax 1986
May;41:369-71.

Campbell IA, Lyons E, Prescott RJ. Stopping smoking: Do nicotine chewing-gum
and postal encouragement add to doctor’s advice. Practitioner 1987
Jan;231:114-7.

Davis AL, Faust R, Ordentlich M. Self-help smoking cessation and maintenance
programs: A comparative study with 12-month follow-up by the American Lung
Association. Am J Public Health 1984 Nov;74:1212-7.

Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N. Work-site cardiovascular risk
reduction: A randomized trial of health risk assessment, education,
counseling, and incentives. Am J Public Health 1993 Sep;83:1231-8.

Gritz ER, Berman BA, Bastani R, Wu M. A randomized trial of a self-help
smoking cessation intervention in a nonvolunteer female population: Testing
the limits of the public health model. Health Psychol 1992;11:280-9.

Li VC, Coates TJ, Spielberg LA, Ewart CK, Dorfman S, Huster WJ. Smoking
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physician messages and waiting room media. Prev Med 1984 Sep;13:477-89.

Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC et al.
Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social
support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991
Jun;59:439-48.

Ossip-Klein DJ, Giovino GA, Megahed N, Black PM, Emont SL, Stiggins J et al.
Effects of a smoker’s hotline: Results of a 10- county self-help trial. J
Consult Clin Psychol 1991;59:325-32.

Pederson LL, Lefcoe NM, Wood T. Use of a self-help smoking cessation manual as
an adjunct to advice from a respiratory specialist. Int J Addict (US)
1983;18:777-782.

Petersen L, Handel J, Kotch J, Podedworny T, Rosen A. Smoking reduction during
pregnancy by a program of self-help and clinical support. Obstet Gynecol 1992
Jun;79:924-30.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.


Table 12. Efficacy of and Cessation Rates for Various Intensity Levels
of Person-to-Person Contact

British Thoracic Society. Smoking cessation in patients: Two further studies
by the British Thoracic Society. Thorax 1990 Nov;45:835-40.

Bronson DL, Flynn BS, Solomon LJ, Vacek P, Secker-Walker RH. Smoking cessation
counseling during periodic health examinations. Arch Intern Med 1989
Jul;149:1653-6.

Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking
cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture–A controlled study. Behav Res
Ther 1983;21:417-24.

Curry SJ, Marlatt GA, Gordon J, Baer JS. A comparison of alternative
theoretical approaches to smoking cessation and relapse. Health Psychol
1988;7:545-56.

Davies BL, Matte-Lewis MBL, O’Connor AM, Dulberg CS, Drake ER. Evaluation of
the “Time to Quit” self-help smoking cessation program. Can J Public Health
1992 Jan;83:19-23.

Decker BD, Evans RG. Efficacy of a minimal contact version of a multimodal
smoking cessation program. Addict Behav 1989;14:487- 91.

Demers RY, Neale AV, Adams R, Trembath C, Herman SC. The impact of physicians’
brief smoking cessation counseling: A MIRNET study. J Fam Pract 1990
Dec;31:625-9.

Gillams J, Lewith GT, Machin D. Acupuncture and group therapy in stopping
smoking. Practitioner 1984 Mar;228:341-4.

Ginsberg D, Hall SM, Rosinski M. Partner support, psychological treatment, and
nicotine gum in smoking treatment: An incremental study. Int J Addict 1992
May;27:503-14.

Gruder CL, Mermelstein RJ, Kirkendol S, Hedeker D, Wong SC, Schreckengost J et
al. Effects of social support and relapse prevention training as adjuncts to a
televised smoking-cessation intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol
1993;61:113-20.

Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Delcore MG, Lucas BD Jr. Randomized, controlled
trial of transdermal clonidine for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother 1993
Sep;27:1025-8.

Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Vogt TM, Stevens VJ, Biglan A. Nurse-assisted
counseling for smokers in primary care. Ann Intern Med 1993 Apr;118:521-5.

Huber D. Combined and seperate treatment effects of nicotine chewing gum and
self-control method. Pharmacopsychiatry 1988;21:461-2.

Hughes GH, Hymowitz N, Ockene JK, Simon N, Vogt TM. The Multiple Risk Factor
Intervention Trial (MRFIT). V. Intervention on smoking. Prev Med 1981
Jul;10:476-500.

Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, Van Vunakis H. Controlled
trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med
J 1984 May;288:1499-1503.

Kendrick JS, Zahniser SC, Miller N, Salas N, Stine J, Gargiullo PM et al.
Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: Results of
the smoking cessation in pregnancy project. Am J Public Health
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Lambe R, Osier C, Franks P. A randomized controlled trial of hypnotherapy for
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Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone
outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. Am
J Public Health 1992 Jan;82:41-6.

Langford ER, Thompson EG, Tripp SC. Smoking and health education during
pregnancy: Evaluation of a program for women in prenatal classes. Can J Public
Health 1983 Jul;74:285-289.

Leung JP. Smoking cessation by auricular acupuncture and behavioral therapy.
Psychologia Intl J Psychol Orient 1991;34:177-87.

MacArthur C, Newton JR, Knox EG. Effect of anti-smoking health education on
infant size at birth: A randomized controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1987
Apr;94:295-300.

Marshall A, Raw M. Nicotine chewing gum in general practice: Effect of follow
up appointments. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985 May;290:1397-8.

Mayer JP, Hawkins B, Todd R. A randomized evaluation of smoking cessation
interventions for pregnant women at a WIC clinic. Am J Public Health 1990
Jan;80:76-8.

Messimer SR, Hickner JM, Henry RC. A comparison of two antismoking
interventions among pregnant women in eleven private primary care practices. J
Fam Pract 1989 Mar;28:283-8.

Mogielnicki RP, Neslin S, Dulac J, Balestra D, Gillie EC,J. Tailored media can
enhance the success of smoking cessation clinics. J Behav Med 1986
Apr;9:141-61.

Mothersill KJ, McDowell I, Rosser W. Subject characteristics and long term
post-program smoking cessation. Addict Behav 1988;13:29-36.

Nebot M, Cabezas C. Does nurse counseling or offer of nicotine gum improve the
effectiveness of physician smoking- cessation advice? Fam Pract Res J 1992
Sep;12:263-70.

Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Pbert L, Hebert JR, Luippold R, Goldbert RJ et al.
The physician-delivered smoking intervention project: Can short-term
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Health Psychol 1994;13:278- 81.

Ockene JK, Kristeller JL, Goldberg R, Ockene I, Merriam P, Barrett S et al.
Smoking cessation and severity of disease: The Coronary Artery Smoking
Intervention Study. Health Psychol 1992;11:119-26.

O’Connor AM, Davies BL, Dulberg CS, Buhler PL, Nadon C, McBride BH et al.
Effectiveness of a pregnancy smoking cessation program. J Obstet Gynecol
Neonatal Nurs 1992 Sep;21:385-92.

Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC et al.
Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social
support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991
Jun;59:439-48.

Page AR, Walters DJ, Schlegel RP, Best JA. Smoking cessation in family
practice: The effects of advice and nicotine chewing gum prescription. Addict
Behav 1986;11:443-6.

Patel C, Marmot MG, Terry DJ, et al. Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary
risk: Four year follow up. Br Med J 1985 Apr;290:1103-6.

Pederson LL, Wanklin JM, Lefcoe NM. The effects of counseling on smoking
cessation among patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Addict 1991 Jan;26:107-19.

Rabkin SW, Boyko E, Shane F, Kaufert J. A randomized trial comparing smoking
cessation programs utilizing behavior modification, health education or
hypnosis. Addict Behav 1984;9:157-73.

Reid DD, Brett GZ, Hamilton PJS, Jarrett RJ, Keen H, Rose G. Cardiorespiratory
disease and diabetes among middle-aged male civil servants. Lancet 1974
Mar;:469-73.

Richmond RL, Austin A, Webster IW. Three year evaluation of a programme by
general practitioners to help patients to stop smoking. Br Med J 1986
Mar;292:803-6.

Richmond RL, Webster IW. A smoking cessation programme for use in general
practice. Med J Aust 1985 Feb;142:190-4.

Russell MA, Merriman R, Stapleton J, Taylor W. Effect of nicotine chewing gum
as an adjunct to general practitioners’ advice against smoking. Br Med J 1983
Dec;287:1782-5.

Russell MA, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioners’
advice against smoking. Br Med J 1979 Jul;2:231-5.

Sanders D, Fowler G, Mant D, Fuller A, Jones L, Marzillier J. Randomized
controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in general practice. J R
Coll Gen Pract 1989 Jul;39:273-6.

Sexton M, Hebel JR. A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its
effect on birth weight. JAMA 1984 Feb;251:911-5.

Shaughnessy AF, Davis RE, Reeder E. Nicotine chewing gum: Effectiveness and
the influence of patient education in a family practice. J Fam Pract
1987;25:266-9.

Sivarajan ES, Bruce RA, Almes MJ, Green B, Belanger L, Lindskog BD et al.
In-hospital exercise after myocardial infarction does not improve treadmill
performance. N Engl J Med 1981 Aug;305:357-62.

Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Vogt TM. A
smoking-cessation intervention for hospital patients. Med Care 1993
Jan;31:65-72.

Stewart PJ, Rosser WW. The impact of routine advice on smoking cessation from
family physicians. Can Med Assoc J 1982 May;126:1051-4.

Taylor CB, Houston-Miller N, Killen JD, DeBusk RF. Smoking cessation after
acute myocardial infarction: Effects of a nurse- managed intervention. Ann
Intern Med 1990 Jul;113:118-23.

Valbo A, Nylander G. Smoking cessation in pregnancy. Intervention among heavy
smokers. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1994 Mar;73:215-9.

Vetter NJ, Ford D. Smoking prevention among people aged 60 and over: A
randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1990 May;19:164-8.

Weissfeld JL, Holloway JL. Treatment for cigarette smoking in a Department of
Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic. Arch Intern Med 1991 May;151:973-7.

Wilson DM, Taylor DW, Gilbert JR, Best JA, Lindsay EA, Willms DG et al. A
randomized trial of a family physician intervention for smoking cessation.
JAMA 1988 Sep;260:1570-4.

Wilson DH, Wakefield MA, Steven ID, Rohrsheim RA, Esterman AJ, Graham NMH.
“Sick of Smoking” evaluation of a targeted minimal smoking cessation
intervention in general practice. Med J Aust 1990 May;152:518-21.

Wilson D, Wood G, Johnston N, Sicurella J. Randomized clinical trial of
supportive follow-up for cigarette smokers in a family practice. Can Med Assoc
J 1982 Jan;126:127-9.

Windsor RA, Cutter G, Morris J, Reese Y, Manzella B, Bartlett EE et al. The
effectiveness of smoking cessation methods for smokers in public health
maternity clinics: A randomized trial. Am J Public Health 1985 Dec;75:1389-92.

Windsor RA, Lowe JB, Bartlett EE. The effectiveness of a worksite self-help
smoking cessation program: A randomized trial. J Behav Med 1988 Aug;11:407-21.

Windsor RA, Lowe JB, Perkins LL, Smith-Yoder D, Artz L, Crawford M et al.
Health education for pregnant smokers: Its behavioral impact and cost benefit.
Am J Public Health 1993 Feb;83:201-6.


Table 13. Efficacy of and Cessation Rates for Various Types of
Content Relative to No-Contact Arms

Buchkremer G, Minneker E, Block M. Smoking-cessation treatment combining
transdermal nicotine substitution with behavioral therapy. Pharmacopsychiatry
1991 May;24:96-102. (treated as two studies)

Burling TA, Marotta J, Gonzalez R, Moltzen JO, Eng AM, Schmidt GA et al.
Computerized smoking cessation program for the worksite: Treatment outcome and
feasibility. J Consult Clin Psychol 1989 Oct;57:619-22.

Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking
cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture–A controlled study. Behav Res
Ther 1983;21:417-24.

Curry SJ, Marlatt GA, Gordon J, Baer JS. A comparison of alternative
theoretical approaches to smoking cessation and relapse. Health Psychol
1988;7:545-56.

Decker BD, Evans RG. Efficacy of a minimal contact version of a multimodal
smoking cessation program. Addict Behav 1989;14:487- 91.

Emmons KM, Emont SL, Collins RL, Weidner G, et al. Relapse prevention versus
broad spectrum treatment for smoking cessation: A comparison of efficacy. J
Subst Abuse 1988;1:79-89.

Gilbert JR, Wilson DM, Singer J, Lindsay EA, Willms DG, Best JA et al. A
family physician smoking cessation program: An evaluation of the role of
follow-up visits. Am J Prev Med 1992 Mar;8:91-5.

Ginsberg D, Hall SM, Rosinski M. Partner support, psychological treatment, and
nicotine gum in smoking treatment: An incremental study. Int J Addict 1992
May;27:503-14.

Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N. Work-site cardiovascular risk
reduction: A randomized trial of health risk assessment, education,
counseling, and incentives. Am J Public Health 1993 Sep;83:1231-8.

Gruder CL, Mermelstein RJ, Kirkendol S, Hedeker D, Wong SC, Schreckengost J et
al. Effects of social support and relapse prevention training as adjuncts to a
televised smoking-cessation intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol
1993;61:113-20.

Hall SM, Killen JD. Psychological and pharmacological approaches to smoking
relapse prevention. In: Grabowski J, Hall SM (Editors). Pharmacological
Adjuncts in Smoking Cessation. U.S. DHHS, PHS, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental
Health Administration, National Institute on Drug Abuse Monograph 53, DHHS
Publication No. (ADM)85-1333. 1985;53:131-43.

Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Vila KL, Duffy J. Weight gain prevention and smoking
cessation: Cautionary findings. Am J Public Health 1992 Jun;82:799-803.

Hughes GH, Hymowitz N, Ockene JK, Simon N, Vogt TM. The Multiple Risk Factor
Intervention Trial (MRFIT). V. Intervention on smoking. Prev Med 1981
Jul;10:476-500.

Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, Van Vunakis H. Controlled
trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med
J 1984 May;288:1499-1503.

Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone
outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. Am
J Public Health 1992 Jan;82:41-6.

Lando HA, McGovern PG, Barrios FX, Etringer BD. Comparative evaluation of
American Cancer Society and American Lung Association smoking cessation
clinics . Am J Public Health 1990 May;80:554-9.

Langford ER, Thompson EG, Tripp SC. Smoking and health education during
pregnancy: Evaluation of a program for women in prenatal classes. Can J Public
Health 1983 Jul;74:285-9.

Leung JP. Smoking cessation by auricular acupuncture and behavioral therapy.
Psychologia Intl J Psychol Orient 1991;34:177-87.

Mayer JP, Hawkins B, Todd R. A randomized evaluation of smoking cessation
interventions for pregnant women at a WIC clinic. Am J Public Health 1990
Jan;80:76-8.

Mogielnicki RP, Neslin S, Dulac J, Balestra D, Gillie ECJ. Tailored media can
enhance the success of smoking cessation clinics. J Behav Med 1986
Apr;9:141-61.

Mothersill KJ, McDowell I, Rosser W. Subject characteristics and long term
post-program smoking cessation. Addict Behav 1988;13:29-36.

Omenn GS, Thompson B, Sexton M, Hessol N, Breitenstein B, Curry S et al. A
randomized comparison of worksite-sponsored smoking cessation programs. Am J
Prev Med 1988 Sep;4:261-7.

Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC et al.
Self-help quit smoking interventions: Effects of self-help materials, social
support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991
Jun;59:439-48.

Patel C, Marmot MG, Terry DJ, et al. Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary
risk: Four year follow up. Br Med J 1985 Apr;290:1103-6.

Paxton R. The effects of a deposit contract as a component in a behavioural
programme for stopping smoking. Behav Res Ther 1980;18:45-50.

Pirie PL, McBride CM, Hellerstedt W, Jeffery RW, Hatsukami D, Allen S et al.
Smoking cessation in women concerned about weight. Am J Public Health 1992
Sep;82:1238-43.

Rabkin SW, Boyko E, Shane F, Kaufert J. A randomized trial comparing smoking
cessation programs utilizing behavior modification, health education or
hypnosis. Addict Behav 1984;9:157-73.

Reid DD, Brett GZ, Hamilton PJS, Jarrett RJ, Keen H, Rose G. Cardiorespiratory
disease and diabetes among middle-aged male civil servants. Lancet 1974
Mar;:469-73.

Richmond RL, Austin A, Webster IW. Three year evaluation of a programme by
general practitioners to help patients to stop smoking. Br Med J 1986
Mar;292:803-6.

Richmond RL, Makinson RJ, Kehoe LA, Giugni AA, Webster IW. One-year evaluation
of three smoking cessation interventions administered by general
practitioners. Addict Behav 1993 Mar;18:187-99.

Sanders D, Fowler G, Mant D, Fuller A, Jones L, Marzillier J. Randomized
controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in general practice. J R
Coll Gen Pract 1989 Jul;39:273-6.

Sexton M, Hebel JR. A clinical trial of change in maternal smoking and its
effect on birth weight. JAMA 1984 Feb;251:911-5.

Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Vogt TM. A
smoking-cessation intervention for hospital patients. Med Care 1993
Jan;31:65-72.

Stewart PJ, Rosser WW. The impact of routine advice on smoking cessation from
family physicians. Can Med Assoc J 1982 May;126:1051-4.

Taylor CB, Houston-Miller N, Haskell WL, Debusk RF. Smoking cessation after
acute myocardial infarction: The effects of exercise training. Addict Behav
1988;13:331-5.

Weissfeld JL, Holloway JL. Treatment for cigarette smoking in a Department of
Veterans Affairs outpatient clinic. Arch Intern Med 1991 May;151:973-7.

Windsor RA, Lowe JB, Bartlett EE. The effectiveness of a worksite self-help
smoking cessation program: A randomized trial. J Behav Med 1988 Aug;11:407-21.

Zelman DC, Brandon TH, Jorenby DE, Baker TB. Measures of affect and nicotine
dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments. J
Consult Clin Psychol 1992 Dec;60:943-52.


Table 15. Efficacy of and Cessation Rates for Number of Person-to-
Person Treatment Sessions

British Thoracic Society. Smoking cessation in patients: Two further studies
by the British Thoracic Society. Thorax 1990 Nov;45:835-40.

Bronson DL, Flynn BS, Solomon LJ, Vacek P, Secker-Walker RH. Smoking cessation
counseling during periodic health examinations. Arch Intern Med 1989
Jul;149:1653-6.

Cottraux JA, Harf R, Boissel JP, Schbath J, Bouvard M, Gillet J. Smoking
cessation with behaviour therapy or acupuncture–A controlled study. Behav Res
Ther 1983;21:417-24.

Curry SJ, Marlatt GA, Gordon J, Baer JS. A comparison of alternative
theoretical approaches to smoking cessation and relapse. Health Psychol
1988;7:545-56.

Decker BD, Evans RG. Efficacy of a minimal contact version of a multimodal

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