FCER End Notes

Chapter 8 Chiropractic and Manual Medicine


  1. 1. From internal AMA documents introduced into evidence by the chiropractic plaintiffs at the Wilk v. AMA trial. Data from the federally-mandated study study was to be used to determine whether chiropractic should be included in Medicare, the government-sponsored health insurance program for older Americans. Passage of the Corman-Stone bill in 1973 brought chiropractic services into the Medicare system.


  2. 2. Eddy, David M. Quoted in Chiropractic: A Review of Current Research. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. Arlington, VA. p.1. Dr. Eddy, a medical physician, is Professor of Health Policy and Management at Duke University.


  3. 3. Eisenberg, David et. al.”Unconventional Medicine in the United States: Prevalence, Costs and Patterns of Use.” New England Journal of Medicine. January 28, 1993. 328: 246-252.


  4. 4. Leach, Robert. The Chiropractic Theories: A Synopsis of Scientific Research. p. 24. Leach cites as his source an article by Elizabeth Lomax called “Manipulative therapy: a historical perspective from ancient times to the modern era,” which appeared in The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy, published by the United States Government Printing Office (1975), pp. 11-17. This monograph contains the proceedings of a conference on spinal manipulation, convened by the National Institute for Neurological and Communicable Diseases and Stroke (NINCDS).


  5. 5. Copland-Griffiths, Michael Dynamic Chiropractic Today. pp. 119-120.


  6. 6. Ibid. pp. 121-122.


  7. 7. Leach. op. cit. p. 25


  8. 8. Gibbons, Russell. “The Evolution of Chiropractic: Medical and Social Protest in America.” in Modern Developments in the Principles and Practice of Chiropractic, edited by Scott Haldeman. p. 23.


  9. 9. Sharpless, Seth. “Susceptibility of Spinal Roots to Compression Block.” In Goldstein, Murray (editor): The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1975, pp. 155-161.


  10. 10. Kirkaldy-Willis, W, Cassidy, J. “Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Low-Back Pain.” Canadian Family Physician 31:535-540. 1985.


  11. 11. Meade, T.W., Dyer, S., et. al. “Low Back Pain of Mechanical Origin: Randomized Comparison of Chiropractic and Hospital Outpatient Treatment,” British Medical Journal, June 2, 1990. Vol. 300, pp. 1431-1437.


  12. 12. Dr. T. W. Meade, interviewed on a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) program, as quoted in Chiropractic: A Review of Current Research. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research. 1992.


  13. 13. Koes, B.W., Bouter, L.M., et. al. “Randomised Clinical Trial of Manipulative Therapy and Physiotherapy for Persistent Back and Neck Complaints: Results of One Year Follow Up.” British Medical Journal. March 7, 1992, Volume 304, pp. 601-605.


  14. 14. Ebrall, P.S. “Mechanical Low-Back Pain: A Comparison of Medical and Chiropractic Managment Within the Victorian WorkCare Scheme,” Chiropractic Journal of Australia, June 1992, Volume 22, Number 2, pp. 47-53.


  15. 15. Jarvis, K.B., Phillips, R.B., et. al. “Cost per Case Comparison of Back Injury Claims of Chiropractic versus Medical Management for Conditions with Identical Diagnostic Codes,” Journal of Occupational Medicine, August 1991, Volume 33, Number 8, pp. 847-852.


  16. 16. Wolk, S. Chiropractic versus Medical Care: A Cost Analysis of Disability and Treatment for Back-Related Workers’ Compensation Cases. Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research, September 1987.


  17. 17. Boline, P.D. Chiropractic Treatment and Pharmaceutical Treatment for Muscular Contraction Headaches: A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial. Proceedings from the 1991 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation. FCER. Arlington, Virginia.


  18. 18. North American Spine Society’s Ad Hoc Committee on Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures. Spine. 1991. Vol. 16, No. 10.


  19. 19. Davis, H. AV MED Medical Director. Miami, Florida. 1982. The chiropractor was Mark Silverman, D.C. This evidence was presented as part of the Wilk v. AMA trial.


  20. 20. Cherkin, D., MacCornack, F. “Patient Evaluations of Low Back Pain Care from Family Physicians and Chiropractors,” Western Journal of Medicine, March 1989, Volume 150, pp. 351-355.


  21. 21. Gilbert, J.R. “Clinical Trial of Common Treatments for Low Back Pain in Family Practice.” British Medical Journal, 1985, Vol. 291, pp. 791-794.


  22. 22. Curtis P, Bove G. “Family Physicians, Chiropractors and Back Pain.” Journal of Family Practice, November 1992, Vol. 35, pp. 551-555.


  23. 23. The Gallup Organization, Demographic Characteristics of Users of Chiropractic, 1991.

Chapter 9 Foundations of the Chiropractic Model


  1. 1. Copland-Griffiths, Dynamic Chiropractic Today, p. 159


  2. 2. Bourdillion, J.F. Spinal Manipulation. pp. 205-206


  3. 3. Copland-Griffiths, op. cit. p. 162


  4. 4. Mazzarelli, Joseph, D.C. (editor). Chiropractic: Interprofessional Research. pp. 69-76.


  5. 5. Yates RG, Lamping DL, Abram NL, Wright C. “Effects of Chiropractic Treatment on Blood Pressure and Anxiety: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1988; 11: 484-488.


  6. 6. Kokjohn K, Schmid DM, Triano JJ, Brennan PC. “The Effect of Spinal Manpulation on Pain and Prostaglandin Levels in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1992; 15: 279-285.


  7. 7. Thomason, PR, Fisher BL, Carpenter PA, Fike GL. “Effectiveness of Spinal Manipulative Therapy in Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Pilot Study.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1979; 2: 140-145.


  8. 8. Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Katlinger CJ, Lohr GE, Glendening C, Hondras MA, McGregor M, Triano JJ. “Enhanced Phagocytic Cell Respiratory Burst Induced by Spinal Manipulation: Potential Role of Substance P.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1991; 14: 399-408.


  9. 9. Klougart N, Nillson N, Jacobsen J. “Infantile Colic Treated by Chiropractors: A Prospective Study of 316 Cases.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1989; 12: 281-288.


  10. 10. Falk, JW. “Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction Secondary to Lumbar Dysfunctional Syndrome.” Chiropractic Technique, 1990; 2: 45-48.


  11. 11. Borregard, PE. “Neurogenic Bladder and Spina Bifida Occulta: A Case Report.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1987; 10: 122-123.


  12. 12. Masarsky, CS and Weber M. “Screening Spirometry in the Chiropractic Examination.” ACA Journal of Chiropractic, February 1989; 23: 67-68.


  13. 13. Masarsky, CS and Weber M. Chiropractic and Lung Volumes A Retrospective Study. ACA Journal of Chiropractic, September 1986; 20: 65-68.


  14. 14. Hewitt, EG. “Chiropractic Treatment of a 7-Month-Old With Chronic Constipation: A Case Report. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics (International Chiropractors Association), 1992; 16-23.


  15. 15. Bachman TR, Lantz, CA. “Management of Pediatric Asthma and Enuresis With Probable Traumatic Etiology.” Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics (International Chiropractors Association), 1991: 14-22.


  16. 16. Browning, JE. ” Mechanically Induced Pelvic Pain and Organic Dysfunction in a Patient Without Low Back Pain.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1990; 13: 406-411.


  17. 17. Goodman R. “Cessation of Seizure Disorder: Correction of the Atlas Subluxation Complex.” Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic and Pediatrics (International Chiropractors Association), 1991: 46-56.

Daniel Redwood DC Written by Daniel Redwood DC

Get the Healthiest Newsletter!

Get a dose of Healthy delivered straight to your inbox. Each FREE issue features amazing content that will elevate your Body, Mind, and Spirit.

Your data is never shared with 3rd parties

Body+Mind+Spirit

TRANSFORM YOUR LIFE?

Try the Internet's Longest-Running Wellness Program.