Allium sativum

Garlic

Allium sativum

Liliaceae

Habitat: Cultivated worldwide.

Collection: The bulb with its numerous cloves should be unearthed when
the leaves begin to wither in September. They should be stored in a cool dry
place.

Part Used: Bulb.

Constituents:

  • Volatile oil, consisting of sulphur-containing compounds, including allicin (=S-allyl-2-propenthiosulphinate), allyl-methyltrisulphide, diallyldisulphide, diallyltrisulphide, diallyltetrasulphide, allylpropyldisulphide, ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-l, 3 dithiin, and alliin, which breaks down enzymatically to allicin; with citral, geraniol linalool and a- and b-phellandrene

    Miscellaneous; enzymes including allinase, B vitamins, minerals flavonoids.

Actions: Anti-microbial, diaphoretic, cholagogue, hypotensive,
anti-spasmodic.

Indications: Garlic is among the few herbs that have a universal usage
and recognition. Its daily usage aids and supports the body in ways that no
other herb does. It is one of the most effective anti-microbial plants
available, acting on bacteria, viruses and alimentary parasites. The volatile
oil is an effective agent and as it is largely excreted via the lungs, it is
used in infections of this system such as chronic bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, recurrent colds and influenza. It may be helpful in the treatment of whooping cough and as part of a broader approach to bronchitic asthma. In general it may be used as a preventative for most infectious conditions, digestive as well as respiratory.

For the digestive tract it has been found that Garlic will support the
development of the natural bacterial flora whilst killing pathogenic organisms.

In addition to these amazing properties, Garlic have an international
reputation for lowering both blood pressure, blood cholesterol levels and
generally improving the health of the cardio-vascular system. A recent study
was conducted on two groups, one consisting of 20 healthy volunteers who were fed Garlic for 6 months and the other of 62 patients with coronary heart
disease and raised serum cholesterol. Beneficially changes were found in all
involved and reached a peak at the end of 8 months. The improvement in
cholesterol levels persisted throughout the 2 months of clinical follow-up.

The clinicians concluded that the essential oil of Garlic possessed a distinct
hypolipidemic, or fat reducing, action in both healthy people and patients with coronary heart disease. Garlic should be thought of as a basic food that
will augment the body’s health and protect it in general. It has been used
externally for the treatment of ringworm and threadworm.

Preparations & Dosage: A clove should be eaten three times a day.
If the smell becomes a problem, use Garlic oil capsules, take three a day as a
prophylactic or three times a day when an infection occurs.

adenosine

ajoene 411/

cis-ajoene

trans-ajoene 268

alanine 1, 320-3, 168

allicin 1, 500-27, 800

alliin 5, 000-10, 000

alliinase 411/

allisatin pl

allistatin-i

allistatin-ii

allixin

s-allo-mercapto-cysteine

s-allyl-cysteine

s-allyl-cysteine-suoxide

allyl-disuide

allyl-methyl-disuide

allyl-methyl-trisuide

allyl-propyl-disuide

aluminum

aniline

arachidonic-acid

arginine

ascorbic-acid

aspartic-acid

biotin

boron

5-tyl-cysteine-suoxide

caffeic-acid

calcium

calcium-oxalate

carbohydrates

s-(2-carboxy-propyl)-glutathione

beta-carotene

beta-carotene

beta-carotene

beta-carotene

chlorogenic-acid

choline

chromium

citral

cobalt

copper

p-coumaric-acid

cycloalliin

cystine

desgalactotigonin 400 rt

desoxyribonuclease

diallyl-disuide

diallyl-suide

diallyl-tetrasuide

3, 5-diethyl-1, 2, 4-trithiolane

digalactosyl-diglyceride

1, 2-dimercaptocyclopentane

dimethyl-disuide

dimethyl-difuran

dimethyl-suide

2, 5-dimethyl-tetrahydro

thiophene dimethyl-trisuide

1, 3-dithiane

eicosapentaenoic-acid

essential oil

1, 2-epithiopropane

s-ethyl-cysteine-suoxide

fat

ferulic-acid

fiber

foliacin

fructose

geraniol

germanium

gibberellin-a-3

gibberellin-a-7

gitonin

glucose

glutamic-acid 8, 050-19, 320

gamma-l-glutamyl-s-allyl-cysteine

gamma-l-glutamyl-s-beta-carboxy-beta-methyl-ethyl-cysteinyl-glycine

gamma-l-glutamyl-s-(2-carboxy-1-propyl)-cysteineglycine

gamma-l-glutamyl-s-allyl-mercapto-cysteine

gamma-l-glutamyl-isoleucine

gamma-l-glutamyl-l-leucine

gamma-l-glutamyl-methionine

gamma-l-glutamyl-s-methyl-l-cysteine-suoxide

gamma-l-glutamyl-l-phenylalanine

gamma-l-glutamyl-s-propyl-l-cysteine

gamma-l-glutamyl-l-valine

glutathione

glycerol-suoquinovoside

glycine

guanosine

hexa-1, 5-dienyl-trisuide

1-hexanol

hexokinase

histidine

p-hydroxybenzoic-acid

iodine

iron isotyl-isothiocyanate

isoleucine

kaempferol

leucine

linalool

linolenic-acid

lysine

magnesium

manganese

methionine

methyl-allyl-disuide

methylallyl-suide

methylallyl-trisuide

2-methylbenzaldehyde t

3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-thione

s-methyl-cysteine

s-methyl-cysteine-suoxide

24-methylene-cycloartenol

s-methyl-l-cysteine-suoxide

1-methyl-2-(prop-2-enyl)-disuane

1-methyl-1, 2-(prop-2-enyl)-disuane

1-methyl-3-(prop-2-enyl)-trisuane

methyl-propyl-disuide

4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole

monogalactosyl-diglyceride

myrosinase

niacin

nickel

nicotinic-acid

oleanolic-acid

oleic-acid

ornithine

peroxidase

alpha-phellandrene

beta-phellandrene

phenylalanine

phloroglucinol pl

phosphatidyl-choline

phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

phosphatidyl-inositol

phosphatidyl-serine

phosphorus

phytic-acid

potassium

proline

2-propen-1-ol

propene

propenethiol

prop-2-enyl-disuane

1, 2-(prop-2-enyl)-disuane

trans-1-propenyl-methyl-disuide

s-propenyl-cysteine

s-propyl-cysteine-suoxide

trans-s-(propenyl-1-yl)-cysteine-disuide

prostaglandin-a-1

prostaglandin-a-2

prostaglandin-b-1

prostaglandin-b-2

prostaglandin-e-1

prostaglandin-e-2

alpha-prostaglandin-f-1

alpha-prostaglandin-f-2

protein

protodegalactotigonin

protoeruboside-b

pseudoscoridinine-a

pseudoscoridinine-b

quercetin

quercetin-3-o-beta-d-glucoside

raffinose

riboavin

riboavin

riboavin

riboavin

rutin

saponin

sativoside-b-1

sativoside-r-1

sativoside-r-2

scordine

scordinin-a

scorodinin-a-1

scorodinin-a-2

scorodinine-a-3

scorodinin-b

scorodose

selenium

serine

silicon

siic-acid

beta-sitosterol

sodium

sodium

stigmasterol

succinic-acid

sucrose

taurine

thiamacornine

thiamamidine

thiamin

threonine

tin

alpha-tocopherol

beta-tocopherol

2, 3, 4-trithiapentane

tryptophan

tyrosine

tyrosinase

uranium

valine

2-vinyl-4h-1, 3-dithiin

3-vinyl-4h-1, 2-dithiin

vit-u

zinc

Citations from the Medline database for Allium sativum

Aboul-Enein AM: Inhibition of tumor growth with possible immunity
by Egyptian garlic extracts.

NAHRUNG 1986; 30(2):161-9

Garlic bulbs (Allium sativum) were extracted with distilled water or ethanol.
The extracts were then incubated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells at 37
degrees C for 1 h. These pretreated cells were injected into swiss albino mice
which survived over 12 weeks. To the contrary, tumor cells which were
pretreated with garlic extracts, produced ascites tumor in all mice that died 2
or 4 weeks after intraperitoneal injection. When mice were treated twice at
intervals of 7 days with freshly prepared tumor cells exposed to watery or
ethanolic extracts of fresh garlic, they acquired resistance against a
challenge with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Administration of garlic extracts
to mice for at least 2 weeks before tumor transplantation, caused a slight
delay of 10-20 days in tumor growth and animal death. Generally, the ethanolic
extract of garlic gave more pronounced effect as tumor inhibitor as well as
immunityinduction than watery extract. No change in serum
electrophoreticpattern was detected in mice, whether the tumor cells injected
wereincubated or not with garlic extract. In animals treated withunincubated
tumor cells, albumin and globulin percentages as well as albumin: globulin
ratios (A/G) were decreased as compared to normalmice. A/G ratio was also
decreased in immunized mice, pretreated with garlic extract, due to the
increase of gamma globulin and unchanging of albumin.

Adoga GI: Effect of garlic oil extract on glutathione reductase levels in
rats fed on high sucrose and alcohol diets: a possible mechanism of the
activity of the oil.

BIOSCI REP 1986 Oct; 6(10):909-12

The effect on glutathione reductase activities of feeding garlic oil to white
albino rats maintained on high sucrose and alcohol diets was studied. Whereas
high sucrose and alcohol diets resulted in significant increases in the
activity of glutathione reductase in liver, kidneys and serum, the presence of
garlic oil restored the levels to near normal. It is proposed that the
mechanism of this action of garlic oil involves the active principle, diallyl
disulphide, which interacts in an exchange reaction with enzymes and substrates
such as glutathione reductase and glutathione which contain thiol groups.

Adoga GI Osuji J: Effect of garlic oil extract on serum, liver and
kidney enzymes of rats fed on high sucrose & alcohol diets.

BIOCHEM INT 1986 Oct; 13(4):615-24

High levels of alkaline phosphatase and alcohol dehydrogenase were observed
in the serum, liver and kidneys of rats fed on high sucrose and high alcohol
diets over a period of 75 days. Garlic oil extract fed with any of the diets,
significantly lowered the high levels of the two enzymes in the serum, liver
and kidneys. This effect may be due to reduced biosynthesis of fatty acids as
NADPH, required for the process, is utilised for the metabolism of the oil.

Ahn-B-W; Lee-D-H; Yeo-S-G; Kang-J-H; Do-J-R; Kim-Y-H; Park-Y-H

Inhibitory action of natural food components on the formation of
carcinogenic nitrosamine.

Bulletin of the Korean Fisheries Society (1993) 26(4): 289-295

The present paper was investigated in the inhibitory action of vegetable and
seaweed water-soluble extracts on the formation of carcinogenic
N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA). The vegetable and seaweed extracts obtained from
garlic(Allium sativum), onion(Allium cepa), green onion(Allium fistuiosum),
chinese pepper(Fagara mandshurica), green pepper (Capsicum annuum), red
pepper(Capsicum annuum), ginger(Zingiber officinale), carrot (Daucus carota),
laver(Porphyra tenera), sea lettuce(Entero compresa), sea mustard (Undaria
pinnatifida) and sea staghorn(Codium fragile) were incubated with sodium
nitrite-dimethylamine mixtures at 37 degree C under different pH conditions.
The formation of NDMA was reduced to 10 apprx 40% and 25 apprx 50% by the
addition of vegetable and seaweed extracts 30mg at pH 1.2, respectively. The
inhibition degree by the extracts at pH 1.2 was similar to that at pH 4.2 and
to that by ascorbic acid at pH 1.2. The inhibitory action of the extracts
against NDMA formation was not decreased by heat treatment at 80 degree C for
10min, but decreased by the treatment of sodium borohydride. It is assumed that
reducing powers of the extracts participated in their inhibitory actions.

Ali M Angelo-Khattar M Farid A Hassan RA Thulesius O

Aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) inhibit prostaglandin synthesis
in the ovine ureter.

In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1993 Nov) 49(5):855-9

The prostaglandins (PGs) synthesized from C-14-arachidonic acid by the
homogenized sheep ureter were identified as being prostacyclin (PGI-2), PGF-2
alpha and thromboxane B-2 (TXB-2). The radioimmunoassay (RIA) estimation of
6-keto-PGF-1 alpha, a stable metabolite of PGI-2, confirms that it was the
major metabolite or arachidonic acid. Aqueous extracts of fresh garlic (5,
12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml) were shown to inhibit the synthesis of the prostanoids
in a dose dependent manner. Fresh garlic extracts (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml) also
dose dependently inhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the isolated
ureter. Boiled garlic (5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml) had no effect on either
ureteral motility or the PG synthesizing capacity of the sheep ureter.

Ali M Mohammed SY: Selective suppression of platelet thromboxane
formation with sparing of vascular prostacyclin synthesis by aqueous extract of
garlic in rabbits.

PROSTAGLANDINS LEUKOTRIENES MED 1986 Dec; 25(2-3):139-46

It has been suggested that a drug which selectively inhibits platelet
thromboxane synthesis, sparing vascular synthesis of prostacyclin, would be
more effective as an anti-thrombotic agent. We studied the effect of an aqueous
extract of garlic on the production of thromboxane and prostacyclin by rabbit
whole blood and aorta in vitro and ex vivo. A dose-dependent inhibition of
thromboxane production was observed during blood clotting. Synthesis of
prostacyclin was not affected by any concentration of garlic extract used in
the experiment. A slight but insignificant reduction in the vascular synthesis
of prostacyclin was observed at the highest concentration of garlic used in in
vitro experiments. The synthesis of thromboxane by aorta was completely
suppressed at all the concentrations of garlic tested. A similar pattern of
results was observed after intraperitoneal administration of garlic (1 ml/kg)
for one week on the enzymatic synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin of
these tissues ex-vivo. Aortic synthesis of prostacyclin was significantly
increased in the garlic treated rabbits compared to the controls. The data
obtained from these rabbit experiments suggested that it may be possible to
achieve a selective suppression of thromboxane formation by platelets with
sparing of vascular synthesis of prostacyclin by garlic treatment.

Alnaqeeb MA Ali M Thomson M Khater SH Gomes SA al-Hassan JM

Histopathological evidence of protective action of garlic against collagen
and arachidonic acid toxicity in rabbits.

In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1992 Aug) 46(4):301-6

Amagase H Milner JA

Impact of various sources of garlic and their constituents on 7, 12-
dimethylbenz[a]anthracene binding to mammary cell DNA.

In: Carcinogenesis (1993 Aug) 14(8):1627-31

Amagase H Milner JA

Impact of dietary lipids on the ability of garlic to inhibit 7, 12-
dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) binding to mammary DNA

In: FASEB J (1993) 7(3):A69

Apitz-Castro R Badimon JJ Badimon L

Effect of ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound from garlic, on platelet
thrombus formation.
< P>
In: Thromb Res (1992 Oct 15) 68(2):145-55

Apitz-Castro R Cabrera S Cruz MR Ledezma E Jain MK: Effects of garlic
extract and of three pure components isolated from it on human platelet
aggregation, arachidonate metabolism, release reaction and platelet
ultrastructure.

THROMB RES 1983 Oct 15; 32(2):155-69

We studied the effect of the methanol extract of garlic bulbs (EOG) and of
three pure components isolated from it (F1, F2, F3), on human platelet
aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine, collagen, thrombin, arachidonate, PAF,
and the ionophore A-23187. Incubation of PRP with EOG, either in methanol or in
homologous PPP, inhibits platelet aggregation induced by all of the above
mentioned agonists. F1, F2, and F3 also inhibit platelet aggregation, however,
F3 was about four times more potent. Addition of EOG or F3 to platelets that
have already been irreversibly aggregated by 10 microM ADP, induces rapid
deaggregation. Inhibition of aggregation was still present after three hours.
The inhibitory effect persisted even after the treated platelets were
Gel-Filtered (GFP) or separated from plasma through a metrizamide gradient and
resuspended in new homologous PPP. Thrombin- induced release of ATP from GFP
was inhibited by 75-80% after EOG or F3 treatment. Incorporation of
[3-H]-arachidonate by intact platelets was decreased by 50-60% in treated
platelets. However, platelets incubated with the inhibitors after incorporation
of radiolabeled arachidonate, although did not aggregate, produced, after
thrombin activation similar amounts of radiolabeled TXB2 and lipoxygenase
products as the controls. Electron microscopy of inhibited platelets, in the
presence of thrombin, showed no degranulation but an increase of spherical
forms. Our results suggest that the effects described might be mediate by a
perturbation of the physicochemical properties of the plasma membrane rather
than by affecting arachidonate or calcium metabolism in the cells. Chemical
structures of F1, F2 and F3 have been provisionally assigned: F1 is
diallytrisulfide, F2 is 2- vinyl-1, 3-dithiene, and F3 is most probably allyl
1, 5-hexadienyltrisulfide.

Ariga:

Platelet aggregation inhibitor in garlic.

LANCET (1981 Jan 17) 1(8212):150-1

Aro A

[Garlic–a spice or a medicine? (editorial)]

Valkosipuli–mauste vai laake?

In: Duodecim (1992) 108(21):1839-41

Artacho MR Ruiz MD Olea F Olea N

A preliminary study on the action of genus Allium on thyroid 131iodide
uptake in rats [letter]

In: Rev Esp Fisiol (1992 Mar) 48(1):59-60

Bakhsh R Chughtai MI: Influence of garlic on serum cholesterol, serum
triglycerides, serum total lipids and serum glucose in human subjects.
NAHRUNG 1984; 28(2):159-63

Human subjects were used for a garlic experiment. The subjects were given a
fat-rich diet for 7 days and on the 8th day the fasting blood was analyzed for
serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum total lipids and serum glucose.
The human subjects were then given a fat- rich diet with 40 g of garlic for 7
days and on the 15th day the fasting blood was analyzed for the above
investigations. On a fat- rich diet the serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides
and serum total lipids were significantly increased as compared to normally feddiet. When 40 g of garlic was substituted in fat-rich diet for 7 days, the
garlic significantly reduced the serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides.

Bhushan S Sharma SP Singh SP Agrawal S Indrayan A Seth P: Effect of
garlic on normal blood cholesterol level.

INDIAN J PHYSIOL PHARMACOL 1979 Jul-Sep; 23(3):211-4

The effect of raw garlic on normal blood cholesterol level in males of the
age group of 18-35 years was studied. The subjects, who never ingested garlic
before, were given 10 g of garlic daily with their diet for two months. Fasting
blood samples were investigated in respect of cholesterol before and after two
months of garlic intake. Initially the blood cholesterol level ranged between
160-250 mg% which decreased significantly in all the subjects of experimental
group after two months of ingestion of garlic. The slight decrease or increase
in the blood cholesterol level of control group was not significant. The raw
garlic can be advocated for daily ingestion in order to lower one’s blood
cholesterol level even if it is within normal limits.

Bilgrami KS Sinha KK Sinha AK

Inhibition of aflatoxin production & growth of Aspergillus flavus by
eugenol & onion & garlic extracts.

In: Indian J Med Res (1992 Jun) 96:171-5

Block-E; Thiruvazhi-M

Allium chemistry: Synthesis of alk(en)yl 3, 4-dimethyl-2-thienyl disulfides,
components of distilled oils & extracts of Allium species.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1993 41(12): 2235-2237

Bordia A: Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart
disease.

AM J CLIN NUTR 1981 Oct; 34(10):2100-3

The study was conducted on two groups of individuals. Group A consisted of 20
healthy volunteers who were fed garlic for 6 months and then followed for
another 2 months without garlic. Garlic administration significantly lowered
the serum cholesterol and triglycerides while raising the high-density
lipoproteins. Group B consisted of 62 patients with coronary heart disease with
elevated serum cholesterol. They were randomly divided into two subgroups: B1
was fed garlic for 10 months while B2 served as a control. Garlic decreased the
serum cholesterol (p less than 0.05), triglycerides (p less than 0.05) and low
density lipoprotein (p less than 0.05) while increasing the high-density
fraction (p less than 0.001). The change reached statistically significant
levels at the end of 8 months and persisted for the next 2 months of follow-up.
Thus, the essential oil of garlic has shown a distinct hypolipidemic action in
both healthy individuals and patients of coronary heart disease.

Boullin:

Garlic as a platelet inhibitor.

LANCET (1981 Apr 4) 1(8223):776-7

Bruce A

[Onion and garlic in medicine–a review. Many effects but doubtful use in
health food preparations]

In: Lakartidningen (1992 Apr 1) 89(14):1189-90, 1193

Caldwell SH Jeffers LJ Narula OS Lang EA Reddy KR Schiff ER

Ancient remedies revisited: does Allium sativum (garlic) palliate the
hepatopulmonary syndrome?

In: J Clin Gastroenterol (1992 Oct) 15(3):248-50

Calvey EM Roach JA Block E

Supercritical fluid chromatography of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts with
mass spectrometric identification of allicin.

In: J Chromatogr Sci (1994 Mar) 32(3):93-6

Chen J

The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of tea, garlic and other
natural foods in China: a review.

In: Biomed Environ Sci (1992 Mar) 5(1):1-17

Croci CA Arguello JA Orioli GA

Biochemical changes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage following
gamma-irradiation.

In: Int J Radiat Biol (1994 Feb) 65(2):263-6

Chutani SK Bordia A: The effect of fried versus raw garlic on
fibrinolytic activity in man.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS 1981 Feb-Mar; 38(3-4):417-21

The effect of fried and raw garlic on blood fibrinolytic activity has been
compared in 20 patients with ischaemic heart disease. Three blood samples were
collected on the first day of the study and similarly on the 2nd and 7th days
after garlic administration, either in raw or fried form. Fibrinolytic activity
increased by 72% and 63% within 6 h of administration of raw or fried garlic,
respectively. The elevated levels were maintained up to 12 h. In the second
part of the study, raw or fried garlic was administered for 4 weeks to patients
with ischaemic heart disease and fibrinolytic activity was measured at weekly
intervals. It showed a sustained increase, rising to 84.8% at the end of 28th
day when raw garlic was administered. Similarly, with fried garlic the rise
was 72%. The study shows that: (i) both raw and fried garlic significantly
enhance fibrinolytic activity (FA); (ii) garlic enhances FA within hours of
administration; (iii) FA continues to rise with continued administration of
garlic; (iv) frying removes the strong acrid smell of garlic, but preserves its
useful effect on FA.

Dalvi RR

Alterations in hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes by
garlic oil in rats.

In: Toxicol Lett (1992 May) 60(3):299-305

Das T Choudhury A Sharma A Talukder G

Modification of clastogenicity of three known clastogens by garlic extract in
mice in vivo.

In: Environ Mol Mutagen (1993) 21(4):383-8

A crude extract of Allium sativum (100 mg/kg b.w./day) was administered orally
to Swiss albino mice with a normal diet for 30 days. Sodium arsenite, a known
cytotoxic agent, was given subcutaneously in normal saline to mice (0.1 mg/kg
b.w. = 1/50 of LD-50) on days 7, 14, 21 and 30 of experiments. Chromosomal
studies were conducted on bone marrow preparations following the
colchicine-air-drying Giemsa schedule. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations
was significantly lower in animals maintained on crude plant extract as a
dietary supplement during exposure to sodium arsenite as compared to those
treated with arsenite alone. A crude extract of Allium sativum thus protects
against the clastogenicity of sodium arsenite.

Deshpande RG Khan MB Bhat DA Navalkar RG

Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by
garlic (Allium sativum).

In: J Antimicrob Chemother (1993 Oct) 32(4):623-6

Dorant E van den Brandt PA Goldbohm RA Hermus RJ Sturmans F

Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a
critical view.

In: Br J Cancer (1993 Mar) 67(3):424-9

Recently published results of epidemiologic case-control studies inChina and
Italy on gastric carcinoma in relation to diet suggest thatconsuming garlic may
reduce the risk of gastric cancer. Chemicalconstituents of garlic have been
tested for their inhibiting effecton carcinogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo
models. In mostexperiments inhibition of tumour growth was established using
freshgarlic extract, garlic compounds or synthetically prepared analogs.In this
review the strengths and weaknesses of the experiments arediscussed and the
outcomes are evaluated to assess the possiblesignificance of garlic or garlic
compounds for the prevention ofcancer in humans. It is concluded that evidence
from laboratoryexperiments and epidemiologic studies is presently not
conclusive asto the preventive activity of garlic. However, the available
evidencewarrants further research into the possible role of garlic in
theprevention of cancer in humans.

Dorant E van den Brandt PA Goldbohm RA Hermus RJ Sturmans F

Agreement between interview data and a self-administered questionnaire on
dietary supplement use.

In: Eur J Clin Nutr (1994 Mar) 48(3):180-8

Dwivedi C Rohlfs S Jarvis D Engineer FN

Chemoprevention of chemically induced skin tumor development by diallyl
sulfide and diallyl disulfide.

In: Pharm Res (1992 Dec) 9(12):1668-70

Egen-Schwind C Eckard R Kemper FH

Metabolism of garlic constituents in the isolated perfused rat liver.

In: Planta Med (1992 Aug) 58(4):301-5

Eilat S Vered Z Mirelman D

[Influence of garlic on blood lipids and blood coagulation]

In: Harefuah (1993 Apr 1) 124(7):418-21

El-Bayoumy K Ip C Chae YH Upadhyaya P Lisk D Prokopczyk B

Mammary cancer chemoprevention by diallyl selenide, a novel organoselenium
compound (Meeting abstract).

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A3322

el-Mofty MM Sakr SA Essawy A Abdel Gawad HS

Preventive action of garlic on aflatoxin B1-induced carcinogenesis in the
toad Bufo regularis.

In: Nutr Cancer (1994) 21(1):95-100

Estrada CA Young MJ

Patient preferences for novel therapy: an N-of-1 trial of garlic in the
treatment for hypertension.

In: J Gen Intern Med (1993 Nov) 8(11):619-21

Farbman KS Barnett ED Bolduc GR Klein JO

Antibacterial activity of garlic and onions: a historical perspective.

In: Pediatr Infect Dis J (1993 Jul) 12(7):613-4

Favaron-F; Castiglioni-C; Di-Lenna-P

Inhibition of some rot fungi polygalacturonases by Allium cepa L. and Allium
porrum L. extracts.

Journal of Phytopathology (Berlin) 1993 139(3): 201-206

Extracts of Allium cepa and A. porrum contain factors that inhibit to various
extents polygalacturonases (PGs) produced in vitro by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,
Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Phoma terrestris, Sclerotium cepivorum,
Macropbomina phaseolina, Didymella bryoniae and Phoma lycopersici. The PG
inhibition rank changed using leek or onion extract. The inhibition factors are
possibly proteins, do not present particular specificity and act against PGs of
fungi pathogens and non pathogens for these plant species.

Fogarty M

Garlic’s potential role in reducing heart disease.

In: Br J Clin Pract (1993 Mar-Apr) 47(2):64-5

Foushee DB Ruffin J Banerjee U: Garlic as a natural agent for the
treatment of hypertension: a preliminary report.

CYTOBIOS 1982; 34(135-36):145-52

The major objective of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of garlic on
blood pressure with respect to its ability to provoke a decrease in blood
pressure and to determine the length of time that this decrease would require.
Spontaneously hypertensive rats were given three doses of garlic extract (0.1
ml/kg, 0.25 ml/kg, and 0.5 ml/kg) by oral injection. The blood pressures of
these ether- anaesthetized rats were measured immediately before the extract
was given, and then 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after the extract was given. A blood
pressure measurement was also taken at 48 h after extract administration for
the 0.5 ml/kg dose. The Gilson Duograph System was used to measure blood
pressure by the tail-cuff method. There was a marked decrease in the systolic
blood pressure of all of the rats after three doses and the decrease occurred
within 30 min in each case. Even though the average decreases for the 0.1 ml/kg
and the 0.25 ml/kg doses were calculated as 51, 25 mm Hg and 56.25 mm Hg,
respectively, these doses were not sufficient to sustain the blood pressure in
a normal range for more than 1 or 2 h. The 0.5 ml/kg dose, showing an average
decrease of 65.7 mm Hg, was sufficient to provoke a decrease to a normal level
and to sustain this decrease for up to 24 h. The results indicate that garlic
is effective as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension.

Fu N

[Antioxidant action of garlic oil and allitridi]

In: Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao (1993 Aug) 15(4):295-301

The lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence (CL) of mouse livermitochondria
induced by a Vc/FeSO4 reaction system was greatlyinhibited by garlic oil (GO)
and allitridi (Alt) at 0.1 mg/ml. HpD-induced photohemolysis was moderately
inhibited by garlic oil (25micrograms/ml) and allitridi (20 micrograms/ml).
Allitridi (200micrograms/ml) effectively prevented inactivation of red
cellmembrane acetylcholine sterase (AchEs) caused by .OH, and at
250micrograms/ml it markedly inhibited blood CL stimulated by crotonoil. Garlic
oil (5 micrograms/ml) and allitridi (100 micrograms/ml)significantly increased
O2-. production. Allitridi at 0.25 mg/ml and1 mg/ml enhanced lipid peroxidation
of mitochondria and blood CLcaused by H2O2.

Gao YM Xie JY Piao YJ

[Ultrastructural observation of intratumoral neutrophils and macrophages
induced by garlic oil]

In: Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih (1993 Sep) 13(9):546-8, 518

Garty BZ

Garlic burns.

In: Pediatrics (1993 Mar) 91(3):658-9

Gebhardt R

Multiple inhibitory effects of garlic extracts on cholesterol biosynthesis
in hepatocytes.

In: Lipids (1993 Jul) 28(7):613-9

Guo NL Lu DP Woods GL Reed E Zhou GZ Zhang LB Waldman RH

Demonstration of the anti-viral activity of garlic extract against human
cytomegalovirus in vitro.

In: Chin Med J (Engl) (1993 Feb) 106(2):93-6

Gupta MK Mittal SR Mathur AK Bhan AK

Garlic–the other side of the coin [letter]

In: Int J Cardiol (1993 Mar) 38(3):333

Gupta-R; Sharma-N-K

Nematicidal properties of garlic, Allium sativum L.

Indian Journal of Nematology (1993) 21(1): 14-18

Nematicidal properties of garlic against Meloidogyne incognita have been
studied. The aqueous extract of garlic bulbs suppressed the egg hatch from
88.64 to 98.88 percent at 0.05 to 10 percent concentrations, respectively. Cent
percent nematodes larvae were killed at 5 percent concentration of the extract
within 168h; whereas, only 61.33 percent larval kill was observed with the leaf
extract at the same concentration and after the same interval of time. The
distilled oil fraction of garlic proved highly toxic against the larvae of 8
ppm concentration. The dry clove powder at 5 percent concentration also killed
cent percent larvae after 72 h.

Gwilt P Lear C Birt D Tempero M Grandjean A Ruddon R Nagel D

Modulation of human acetaminophen metabolism by garlic extract

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A3313

Han J

Highlights of the cancer chemoprevention studies in China.

In: Prev Med (1993 Sep) 22(5):712-22

Hanafy MS Shalaby SM el-Fouly MA Abd el-Aziz MI Soliman FA

Effect of garlic on lead contents in chicken tissues.

In: DTW Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr (1994 Apr) 101(4):157-8

Hatono S Velasco MA Palmer C Wargovich MJ

Chemopreventive activity of sulfur-containing compounds derived from garlic
(Meeting abstract).

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A744

Heinle H Betz E

Effects of dietary garlic supplementation in a rat model on
atherosclerosis.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1994 May) 44(5):614-7

Holzgartner H Schmidt U Kuhn U

Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of a garlic preparation vs.
bezafibrate.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1992 Dec) 42(12):1473-7

Hong JY Wang ZY Smith TJ Zhou S Shi S Pan J Yang CS

Inhibitory effects of diallyl sulfide on the metabolism and tumorigenicity
of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-
(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mouse lung.

In: Carcinogenesis (1992 May) 13(5):901-4

Hong JY Wang ZY Smith TJ Zhou S Shi T Pan J Yang CS

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF DIALLYL SULFIDE (DAS) ON THE METABOLISM AND
TUMORIGENICITY OF THE TOBACCO-SPECIFIC CARCINOGEN 4- IN A/J MOUSE
LUNGAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANONE (NNK)

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1992) 33:A989

Horie T Awazu S Itakura Y Fuwa T

Identified diallyl polysulfides from an aged garlic extract which protects
the membranes from lipid peroxidation [letter]

In: Planta Med (1992 Oct) 58(5):468-9

Ip C Lisk D

MAMMARY CANCER PREVENTION BY REGULAR GARLIC AND SELENIUM-ENRICHED
GARLIC

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1992) 33:A969

Ip C Lisk DJ

Characterization of tissue selenium profiles and anticarcinogenic responses
in rats fed natural sources of selenium-rich products.

In: Carcinogenesis (1994 Apr) 15(4):573-6

Ip C Lisk DJ

Bioavailability of selenium from selenium-enriched garlic.

In: Nutr Cancer (1993) 20(2):129-37

Ip C Lisk DJ Scimeca JA

Potential of food modification in cancer prevention.

In: Cancer Res (1994 Apr 1) 54(7 Suppl):1957s-1959s

Ip C Lisk DJ Stoewsand GS

Mammary cancer prevention by regular garlic and selenium-enriched
garlic.

In: Nutr Cancer (1992) 17(3):279-86

Isensee H Rietz B Jacob R

Cardioprotective actions of garlic (Allium sativum).

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1993 Feb) 43(2):94-8

Kwai/Sapec–added to a standard chow for a 10-week period) on thesusceptibility
to ventricular arrhythmias under ischemia andreperfusion was investigated in
the isolated rat heart (Langendorffpreparation) perfused with a modified
Krebs-Henseleit solution. Theincidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and
fibrillation (VF) afterligation of the descending branch of the left coronary
artery (LAD)(20 min) was significantly reduced in the garlic group as compared
tountreated controls (VT: 0% vs. 35.5%; VF: 50% vs. 88%). The size ofthe
ischemic zone was significantly smaller (31.7% vs. 40.9% of totalheart tissue).
The reperfusion experiments (5 min after 10 minischemia) revealed similar
results (VT: 50% vs. 100%; VF: 30% vs.90%). The time until occurrence of
extrasystoles and VT or VF wasprolonged in most cases, and the duration of
arrhythmias wasabbreviated. No significant alterations in cardiac membrane
fattyacid composition could be found. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase
byacetylsalicylic acid (ASA) caused a moderate increase in arrhythmiasand
ischemic zone in the garlic group as well as in untreatedcontrols under the
conditions of the present experiments. Thus, itseems that the prostaglandin
system does not play a predominant rolein the cardioprotective action of
garlic. The significance of freeradical scavenging activity of garlic for its
antiarrhythmic effectshas to be established.

Jacob BG Schwandt P

[Cholesterol-lowering effects of garlic?]

Cholesterin-senkende Wirkung von Knoblauch?

In: Dtsch Med Wochenschr (1992 Mar 6) 117(10):397-8

Jain RC Konar DB: Effect of garlic oil in experimental cholesterol
atherosclerosis.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS 1978 Feb; 29(2):125-9

Addition of cholesterol in the diet of male albino rabbits produced
hypercholesterolaemia, increased tissue cholesterol, and atheromatous changes
in the aorta. Supplementation of garlic oil along with cholesterol
significantly inhibited the hypercholesterolaemia, decreased tissue cholesterol
and minimised the atheromatous changes in the aorta. These results show that
the active constituent(s) in garlic responsible for its anti-atherogenic action
is present in the oily fraction of garlic.

Jain AK Vargas R Gotzkowsky S McMahon FG

Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical
study.

Am J Med (1993 Jun) 94(6):632-5

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of standardized garlic powder tabletson serum
lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, and blood pressure.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
Forty-two healthy adults (19 men, 23 women), mean age of 52 +/- 12 years, with a
serum total cholesterol (TC)level of greater than or equal to 220 mg/dL
received, in arandomized, double-blind fashion, either 300 mg three times a day
ofstandardized garlic powder in tablet form or placebo. Diets andphysical
activity were unchanged. This study was conducted in anoutpatient, clinical
research unit. RESULTS: The baseline serum TClevel of 262 +/- 34 mg/dL was
reduced to 247 +/- 40 mg/dL (p < 0.01)after 12 weeks of standard garlic treatment. Corresponding values forplacebo were 276 +/- 34 mg/dL before and 274 +/- 29 mg/dL afterplacebo treatment. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) wasreduced by 11% by garlic treatment and 3% by placebo (p < 0.05).There were no significant changes in high-density lipoproteincholesterol, triglycerides, serum glucose, blood pressure, and othermonitored parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with standardized garlic900 mg/d produced a significantly greater reduction in serum TC andLDL-C than placebo. The garlic formulation was well tolerated withoutany odor problems.

Johansson BW

[Garlic as cultural historical medicinal plant–truth or superstition?]

Vitlok som kulturhistorisk medicinalvaxt–sanning eller overtro?

In: Lakartidningen (1992 Sep 16) 89(38):3030, 3035

Kagawa K Matsutaka H Yamaguchi Y Fukuhama C: Garlic extract inhibits the
enhanced peroxidation and production of lipids in carbon tetrachloride-induced
liver injury.

PN J PHARMACOL 1986 Sep; 42(1):19-26

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) enhances lipid peroxidation, resulting in
triglyceride accumulation in the liver. In this report, we studied the
therapeutic, but not the preventive, effect of garlic extract on
CCl4-intoxicated liver, in comparison to the effect of vitamin E. Garlic
extract was given orally to mice in the dose of 10, 100 or 500 mg/kg at 6 hr
after CCl4 administration. The increased conjugated-diene level was diminished
significantly to 82% by the 100 mg/kg extract, and also thiobarbituric
acid-reactivity was inhibited by allthe doses of the extract. In addition to
the above mentioned effects, the high doses of garlic extract lowered hepatic
triglyceride and lipid contents. Highly significant and positive correlation
was observed between hepatic triglyceride content and conjugated-diene level in
the lipid fraction of the liver. Besides, vitamin E at the dose of 25 mg/kg
inhibited only lipid peroxidation. We, therefore, conclude that not only is
garlic extract effective on diminution of lipid peroxide and on alteration of
peroxidative status to more reductive condition like the effect of vitamin E,
but it also inhibits hepatic triglyceride accumulation in injured liver.

Kaku H Goldstein IJ Van Damme EJ Peumans WJ

New mannose-specific lectins from garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons
(Allium ursinum) bulbs.

In: Carbohydr Res (1992 May 22) 229(2):347-53

Kenzelmann R Kade F

Limitation of the deterioration of lipid parameters by a standardized
garlic-ginkgo combination product. A multicenter placebo-controlled
double-blind study.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1993 Sep) 43(9):978-81

Kiesewetter H Jung F Jung EM Blume J Mrowietz C Birk A Koscielny J
Wenzel E

Effects of garlic coated tablets in peripheral arterial occlusive
disease.

In: Clin Investig (1993 May) 71(5):383-6

Langer JW

[Drug information: garlic is healthy–but the jungle of preparations is
dense]

In: Sygeplejersken (1992 Mar 18) 92(12):21

Lawson LD Ransom DK Hughes BG

Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove
extracts and commercial garlic products.

In: Thromb Res (1992 Jan 15) 65(2):141-56

Lee ES Steiner M Lin R

Thioallyl compounds: potent inhibitors of cell proliferation.

In: Biochim Biophys Acta (1994 Mar 10) 1221(1):73-7

Legnani C Frascaro M Guazzaloca G Ludovici S Cesarano G Coccheri S

Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet
aggregation in healthy subjects.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1993 Feb) 43(2):119-22

Lerner DJ Hulley SB

Does eating garlic lower cholesterol? [letter; comment]

In: Ann Intern Med (1994 Jun 1) 120(11):969-70

Lewin G Popov I

Antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract. 2nd communication: Inhibition
of the Cu(2+)-initiated oxidation of low density lipoproteins.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1994 May) 44(5):604-7

Lin XY Liu JZ Milner JA

Dietary garlic suppresses DNA adducts caused by N-nitroso compounds.

In: Carcinogenesis (1994 Feb) 15(2):349-52

Lin XY Liu JZ Milner JA

Dietary garlic powder suppresses the in vivo formation of DNA adducts
induced by n-nitroso compounds in liver and mammary tissues.

In: FASEB J (1992) 6(4):A1392

Liu J Lin RI Milner JA

Inhibition of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors and DNA
adducts by garlic powder.

In: Carcinogenesis (1992 Oct) 13(10):1847-51

Ludeke BI Domine F Ohgaki H Kleihues P

Modulation of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine bioactivation by diallyl sulfide in
vivo.

In: Carcinogenesis (1992 Dec) 13(12):2467-70

Lun ZR Burri C Menzinger M Kaminsky R

Antiparasitic activity of diallyl trisulfide (Dasuansu) on human and
animal pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma sp., Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia
lamblia) in vitro.

In: Ann Soc Belg Med Trop (1994 Mar) 74(1):51-9

Martin N Bardisa L Pantoja C Roman R Vargas M

Experimental cardiovascular depressant effects of garlic (Allium sativum)
dialysate.

In: J Ethnopharmacol (1992 Sep) 37(2):145-9

McFadden JP White IR Rycroft RJ

Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic.

In: Contact Dermatitis (1992 Nov) 27(5):333-4

McMahon FG Vargas R

Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study.

In: Pharmacotherapy (1993 Jul-Aug) 13(4):406-7

Mennella JA Beauchamp GK

The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling’s
behavior.

In: Pediatr Res (1993 Dec) 34(6):805-8

Morioka N Morton DL and Irie RF

A protein fraction from aged garlic extract enhances cytotoxicity and
proliferation of human lymphocytes mediated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin
A (Meeting abstract).

In: Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A3297

Morowitz: Between gargoylism and gas gangrene. HOSP PRACT (1981 Sep)
16(9):173, 176

Mohammad SF Woodward SC: Characterization of a potent inhibitor of
platelet aggregation and release reaction isolated from allium sativum
(garlic).

THROMB RES 1986 Dec 15; 44(6):793-806

When added to platelet-rich plasma, aqueous extracts of garlic inhibited
platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Subsequent experiments designed
to characterize the inhibitory component revealed that the inhibitory activity
was i) associated with small molecular-weight components, ii) the inhibitory
component possessed the typical garlic odor and contained an abundance of
sulfur, iii) the inhibitory activity could be extracted with organic solvents,
and iv) temperatures above 56 degrees C and alkaline pH above 8.5 quickly
destroyed the inhibitory activity. The Rf value of the major inhibitory
component after thin-layer chromatographic separation was similar to that of
allicin, an unique thiosulfinate in garlic previously shown to possess strong
antibiotic and antifungal properties. Allicin was synthesized. On thin-layer
chromatographic plates, allicin co-migrated with the inhibitory component in
garlic. At 10 microM concentration, allicin inhibited completely platelet
aggregation and the release reaction. Comparative studies suggest that the
major platelet aggregation and release inhibitor in garlic may be allicin.

Mutsch-Eckner M Erdelmeier CA Sticher O Reuter HD

A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium
sativum.

In: J Nat Prod (1993 Jun) 56(6):864-9

Nagabhushan M Line D Polverini PJ Solt DB

Anticarcinogenic action of diallyl sulfide in hamster buccal pouch and
forestomach.

In: Cancer Lett (1992 Oct 21) 66(3):207-16

Oelkers B Diehl H Liebig H

In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P-450 reductases from pig liver
microsomes by garlic extracts.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1992 Feb) 42(2):136-9

Orellana A Kawada ME Morales MN Vargas L Bronfman M

Induction of peroxisomal fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase and total carnitine
acetyl-coenzyme A transferase in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes by garlic
extracts.

In: Toxicol Lett (1992 Jan) 60(1):11-7

Osler: Garlic–natural remedy for atherosclerosis-related symptoms?

UGESKR LAEGER (1985 Jan 14) 147(3):151-5

Pan J Hong JY Ma BL Ning SM Paranawithana SR Yang CS

Transcriptional activation of cytochrome P450 2B1/2 genes in rat liver by
diallyl sulfide, a compound derived from garlic.

In: Arch Biochem Biophys (1993 May) 302(2):337-42

Peng-J-P; Wang-X; Yao-X-S

Studies on two new furostanol glycosides from Allium macrostemon
Bunge.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica (1993) 28(7): 526-531

Further studies on the active constituents in the bulbs of Allium macrostemon
Bunge led to the isolation and structural determination of two new furostanol
saponin macrostemonoside E and F. On the basis of chemical evidences and
spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13-C-NMR and FAB-MS), the structure of
macrostemonoside E(I) was elucidated as
(25R)-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5-alpha-furost-20(22)-ene-3-beta, 26-diol-3-O-bea-D-glucopyranosyl
(1 fwdarw 2) (beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 fwdarw 3))-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1
fwdarw 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside; macrostemonoside F(II) was established to
be (25R)-26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5-beta-furost-20(22)-ene-3-beta,
26-diol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 fwdarw 2)-beta-D-galactoside. Preliminary
pharmacological tests showed that bothmacrostemonoside E and F could strongly
inhibit ADP-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro. The IC-50 of the
former was 0.417 mM and that of the latter was 0.020 mM.

Phelps S Harris WS

Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility.

In: Lipids (1993 May) 28(5):475-7

Platt D Brosche T

[A cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic? (letter)]

In: Dtsch Med Wochenschr (1992 Jun 12) 117(24):962-3

Popov I Blumstein A Lewin G

antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract. 1st communication: Direct
detection using the photochemiluminescence.

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1994 May) 44(5):602-4

The antioxidant effect of the aqueous extract from the garlicpreparation Kwai
was investigated using the method ofphotochemiluminescence. The method is based
on the photo-induced, superoxide radical mediated autoxidation of luminol, and
allows forthe capability of substances to inhibit the free radical processes
inthis test system to be quantified, and hence for their antioxidantproperties
in respect of a standard substance (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol) to be
compared. The aqueous extract obtained from 1mg of the garlic preparation was
found to be anti-oxidatively aseffective as 30 nmol of ascorbic acid and/or 3.6
nmol of alpha-tocopherol.

Rainov NG Burkert W

Spontaneous shrinking of a macroprolactinoma.

In: Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) (1993 Jan) 36(1):17-9

Randerson K

Cardiology update. Garlic and the healthy heart.

In: Nurs Stand (1993 Apr 14-20) 7(30):51

Reeve VE Bosnic M Rozinova E Boehm-Wilcox C

A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-
induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

In: Photochem Photobiol (1993 Dec) 58(6):813-7

Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%
1%, and 4% by weight into semipurified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice.
Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the
systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a
dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact
hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed
by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of
a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid,
a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in
control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 mu-g per mouse resulting
in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were
partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact
hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of
urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected
from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic
extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of
contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by
antagonism if the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of
immunosuppression.

Rietz B Isensee H Strobach H Makdessi S Jacob R

Cardioprotective actions of wild garlic (allium ursinum) in ischemia and
reperfusion.

In: Mol Cell Biochem (1993 Feb 17) 119(1-2):143-50

Rosin S Tuorila H Uutela A

Garlic: a sensory pleasure or a social nuisance?

In: Appetite (1992 Oct) 19(2):133-43

Rotzsch W Richter V Rassoul F Walper A

[Postprandial lipemia under treatment with Allium sativum. Controlled
double-blind study of subjects with reduced HDL2-cholesterol]

In: Arzneimittelforschung (1992 Oct) 42(10):1223-7

Sainani GS Desai DB Natu MN Katrodia KM Valame VP Sainani PG:

Onion, garlic, and experimental atherosclerosis.

JPN HEART J 1979 May; 20(3):351-7

Forty-two healthy male albino rabbits weighing around 1 Kg were divided into
4 groups. Group I (8)- fed on normal stock diet, Group II (8)- fed on stock
diet plus cholesterol (0.5 gm in 5 ml of olive oil). Group III (15)- received
stock diet plus cholesterol plus garlic (0.25 gm) juice. Group IV (11)-
received stock diet plus cholesterol plus onion (2.5 gm) juice. The animals
were closely observed and followed for 16 weeks. Approximately every 4 weeks,
blood samples were collected for estimation of various parameters (S.
cholesterol, S. triglycerides, S. lipoproteins, S. phospolipids, and
fibrinolytic activity). At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and
degree of aortic atherosclerosis was graded (grade 0 to 4) in different groups
and compared. Experimental study revealed that both garlic and onion (garlic
more than onion) had significant effect in inhibiting the rise in S.
cholesterol, S. triglycerides, S. beta lipoproteins, and S. phospolipids and
significant effect in enhancing the fibrinolytic activity. The beta: alpha
ratio was altered favourably and the ratio was kept close to normal. As regards
the degree of aortic atherosclerosis as seen on post mortem, it was
significantly less in garlic and onion group when compared with pure
cholesterol group.

Sharma:

Effects of garlic extract and of three pure components isolated from it on
human platelet aggregation, arachidonate metabolism, release reaction and
platelet ultrastructure–comments

THROMB RES (1985 Feb 1) 37(3):489-90

Sendl A Elbl G Steinke B Redl K Breu W Wagner H

Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium
sativum.

In: Planta Med (1992 Feb) 58(1):1-7

Sendl A Schliack M Loser R Stanislaus F Wagner H

Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated
compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic.

In: Atherosclerosis (1992 May) 94(1):79-85

Shenoy NR Choughuley AS

Inhibitory effect of diet related sulphydryl compounds on the formation of
carcinogenic nitrosamines.

In: Cancer Lett (1992 Aug 31) 65(3):227-32

Shoetan A Augusti KT Joseph PK:

Hypolipidemic effects of garlic oil in rats fed ethanol and a high lipid
diet.

EXPERIENTIA 1984 Mar 15; 40(3):261-3

Feeding of ethanol and a high fat-high cholesterol diet to rats markedlyincreased the total lipids in the liver, and cholesterol and triglyceride
levels in the serum, liver and kidneys. However, when ethanol mixed with 0.5%
garlic oil was fed to animals maintained on the high fat-high cholesterol diet,
these lipid levels were significantly reduced to levels near to those seen in
untreated control rats. Garlic oil did not reduce the serum albumin or the
total proteins of liver, kidneys or serum when fed along with ethanol. Probably
the garlic oil enhances the catabolism of dietary cholesterol and fatty
acids.

Silagy C Neil A

Garlic as a lipid lowering agent–a meta-analysis.

In: J R Coll Physicians Lond (1994 Jan-Feb) 28(1):39-45

Srivastava KC Tyagi OD

Effects of a garlic-derived principle (ajoene) on aggregation and
arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

In: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids (1993 Aug) 49(2):587-95

Sumi S Tsuneyoshi T Furutani H

Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum,

possessing a unique genome organization.

In: J Gen Virol (1993 Sep) 74 ( Pt 9):1879-85

Sundaram SG Milner JA

Impact of organosulfur compounds in garlic on canine mammary tumor cells in
culture.

In: Cancer Lett (1993 Oct 15) 74(1-2):85-90

Six organosulfur compounds found in garlic were examined for their ability to
alter the growth of canine mammary tumor cells (CMT-13) in culture.
Water-soluble organosulfur compounds (S-allyl-cysteine, S-ethyl-cysteine and
S-propyl-cysteine) did not significantly alter the growth of CMT-13 cells when
added to cultures at 1.0 mM or less. However, oil-soluble organosulfur
compounds (diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) markedly
inhibited growth. Increasing addition of diallyl disulfide (DADS) resulted in a
progressive decrease in CMT-13 cell growth. Addition of glutathione before DADS
markedly decreased the severity of the growth inhibition. Treatment with
DL-buthionine-SR-sulfoxamine, a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis,
accentuated the growth inhibition caused by DADS. These studies show that some
organosulfur compounds found in garlic are effective inhibitors of the growth
of the neoplastic CMT-13 cell. The inhibitory effects of these compounds are
modified by intracellular glutathione.

Sundaram SG Milner JA

Antitumor effects of organosulfur compounds present in garlic against
canine mammary tumor cells (Meeting abstract).

In: FASEB J (1992) 6(4):A1391

Sutabhaha S Suttajit M Niyomca P

Studies of aflatoxins in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

In: Kitasato Arch Exp Med (1992 Apr) 65(1):45-52

Tadi PP

ANTICARCINOGENIC, ANTITUMOR, AND ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES OF ALLIUM SATIVUM

In: Diss Abstr Int [B] (1992) 52(8):4144

Takada N Matsuda T Otoshi T Yano Y Otani S Hasegawa T Nakae D Konishi Y
Fukushima S

Enhancement by organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions of
diethylnitrosamine-induced glutathione S-transferase positive foci in the rat
liver.

In: Cancer Res (1994 Jun 1) 54(11):2895-9

Tatarintsev A Makarova T Karamov E Kornilayeva G Vrzheshch P Schegolev A
Yershov D Turgiev A

Ajoene blocks HIV-mediated syncytia formation: possible approach to
‘anti-adhesion’ therapy of AIDS.

In: Int Conf AIDS (1992 Jul 19-24) 8(3):39 (abstract no. PuA 6173)

OBJECTIVES: Ajoene, (E, Z)-4, 5, 9-trithiadodeca-1, 6, 11-triene-9-oxide, isolated
from extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) has previously beenshown to inhibit
platelet aggregation by inactivating allostericallythe platelet integrin, GP
IIb/IIIa (Apitz-Castro R et al: BBRC 1986141:145). Structural and functional
similarity of integrins led us topropose that ajoene may also inhibit adhesive
interactions ofleukocytes. Since integrin-mediated formation of
cell-to-cellcontacts has been shown to be an essential prerequisite for
membranefusion (Hildreth JEK, Orentas RJ: Science 1989 244:1075) we
alsoattempted to evaluate

David L. Hoffmann BSc Hons MNIMH Written by David L. Hoffmann BSc Hons MNIMH

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