* High-risk operations
– Major surgery, particularly in the elderly
– Aortic and other major vascular surgery
– Peripheral vascular surgery
– Any surgery with large fluid changes and/or blood loss.
* Intermediate-risk operations
– Head-and-neck surgery
– Abdominal surgery
– Chest surgery
– Orthopaedic surgery
– Prostate surgery
– Carotid endarterectomy (to clear blockage in the carotid artery).
[ACC/AHA Guideline Update on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1996 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery)]