Unlike most sexually transmitted diseases, trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite rather than by bacteria or a virus. The trichomoniasis parasite can be present in the vagina for years without causing symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms

If they do occur, typical symptoms for women include vaginal itching and burning, a greenish-yellow vaginal discharge, and burning or pain when urinating. Sexual intercourse can be painful. In men, symptoms include mild itching and irritation of the penis, pain during intercourse, and discomfort when urinating. Men who have trichomoniasis usually don’t experience any symptoms. They may infect their sexual partners and not know it.

Trichomoniasis is diagnosed by examining a drop of vaginal fluid under a microscope.


The oral medication metronidazole (brand name Flagyl), is used to treat trichomoniasis. If you’re a woman, don’t take this drug during the first three months of pregnancy. Avoid drinking alcohol for 24 hours before, during, and 24 hours after taking the metronidazole. The combination causes vomiting, dizziness, and headaches.

Sexual partners of an infected person should also be treated to prevent getting infected again or spreading the infection further.

Questions to Ask

For Men:

Do you have any of these problems?

  • Discomfort when urinating
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Irritation and itching of the penis

Yes: See Doctor


For Women:

Do you have any of these problems?

  • Itching and burning around the vagina
  • A greenish-yellow vaginal discharge
  • Burning or pain when urinating

Yes: See Doctor

For Men and Women:

Are you suspicious of having contracted trichomoniasis or another sexually transmitted disease from someone you suspect may be infected?

Yes: Call Doctor

Do you want to rule out the presence of Trichomoniasis or other sexually transmitted diseases for any of these reasons:

  • Because you or your sex partner has had multiple sex partners
  • Because you are considering a new sexual relationship
  • Because you are planning to get married or pregnant
  • For peace of mind

Yes: Call Doctor

Provide Self-Care

Self-Care/Prevention Tips

  • There’s only one way to guarantee you’ll never get a sexually transmitted disease: Never have sex.
  • Limiting your sexual activity to one person your entire life is a close second, provided your partner is also monogamous and does not have a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Avoid sexual contact with persons whose health status and practices are not known.
  • Avoid sex if either partner has signs and symptoms of a genital tract infection.
  • Don’t have sex while under the influence of drugs or alcohol (except in a monogamous relationship in which neither partner is infected with an STD).
  • Discuss a new partner’s sexual history with him or her before beginning a sexual relationship. (Be aware, though, that persons are not always honest about their sexual history.)
  • Latex condoms can reduce the spread of sexual diseases when used properly and carefully and for every sex act. They do not eliminate the risk entirely. Unless they are in a monogamous relationship in which neither partner has an STD, both women and men should carry latex condoms and insist that they be used every time they have sexual relations.
  • Using spermicidal foams, jellies, creams (especially those that contain Nonoxynol-9), and a diaphragm can offer additional protection when used with a condom. Use water-based lubricants such as K-Y Brand Jelly. Don’t use oil-based or “petroleum” ones such as Vaseline. They can damage latex condoms.
  • Wash the genitals with soap and water before and after sexual intercourse.
  • Seek treatment for a sexually transmitted disease if you know your sex partner is infected.
  • Ask your doctor to check for STDs every 6 months if you have multiple sex partners, even if you don’t have any symptoms.
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Written by American Institute for Preventive Medicine

Explore Wellness in 2021