Healthy people, healthy planet

Acupuncture–NIH Consensus Statement


National Institutes of Health

Consensus Development Statement



ACUPUNCTURE

November 3-5, 1997

Revised Draft

11/5/97


This statement will be published as: Acupuncture. NIH Consens Statement 1997 November 3-5;15(5): in
press. For making bibliographic reference to consensus statement no. 107
in the electronic form displayed here, it is recommended that the following
format be used: NIH Consens Statement Online 1997 November 3-5 [cited year,
month, day]; 15(5): in press.

NIH Consensus Statements are prepared by a nonadvocate, non-Federal panel of experts, based on (1) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the consensus questions during
a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees
during open discussion periods that are part of the public session; and
(3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second
day and morning of the third. This statement is an independent report of
the consensus panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal
Government.


Contents



Introduction

Acupuncture is a component of the health care system of China that can be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The general theory of acupuncture is based on the premise that there are patterns of energy flow (Qi) through the body that are essential for health. Disruptions of this flow are believed to be responsible for disease. The acupuncturist can correct imbalances of flow at identifiable points close to the skin. The practice of acupuncture to treat identifiable pathophysiological conditions in American medicine was rare until the visit of President Nixon to China in 1972. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest in the United States and Europe in the application of the technique of acupuncture to Western medicine.

Acupuncture describes a family of procedures involving stimulation of anatomical locations on the skin by a variety of techniques. The most studied mechanism of stimulation of acupuncture points employs penetration of the skin by thin, solid, metallic needles, which are manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation. The majority of comments in this report are based on data that came from such studies. Stimulation of these areas by moxibustion, pressure, heat, and lasers is used in acupuncture practice, but due to the paucity of studies, these techniques are more difficult to evaluate. Thus, there are a variety of approaches to diagnosis and treatment in American acupuncture that incorporate medical traditions from China, Japan, Korea, and other countries.

Acupuncture has been used by millions of American patients and performed by thousands of physicians, dentists, acupuncturists, and other practitioners for relief or prevention of pain and for a variety of health conditions. After reviewing the existing body of knowledge, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently removed acupuncture needles from the category of “experimental medical devices” and now regulates them just as it does other devices, such as surgical scalpels and hypodermic syringes, under good manufacturing practices and single-use standards of sterility.

Over the years, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has funded a variety of research projects on acupuncture, including studies on the mechanisms by which acupuncture may have its effects, as well as clinical trials and other studies. There is also a considerable body of international literature on the risks and benefits of acupuncture, and the World Health Organization lists a variety of medical conditions that may benefit from the use of acupuncture or moxibustion. Such applications include pre-vention and treatment of nausea and vomiting; treatment of pain and addictions to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; treatment of pulmonary problems such as asthma and bronchitis; and rehabilitation from neurological damage such as that caused by stroke.

To address important issues regarding acupuncture, the NIH Office of Alternative Medicine and the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research organized a 21/2-day conference to evaluate the scientific and medical data on the uses, risks, and benefits of acupuncture procedures for a variety of conditions. Cosponsors of the conference were the National Cancer Institute, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, the National Institute of Dental Research, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Office of Research on Women’s Health of the NIH. The conference brought together national and international experts in the fields of acupuncture, pain, psychology, psychiatry, physical medicine and rehabilitation, drug abuse, family practice, internal medicine, health policy, epidemiology, statistics, physiology, and biophysics, as well as representatives from the public.

After 11/2 days of available presentations and audience discussion, an independent, non-Federal consensus panel weighed the scientific evidence and wrote a draft statement that was presented to the audience on the third day. The consensus statement addressed the following key questions:


  • What is the efficacy of acupuncture, compared with placebo or sham acupuncture, in the conditions for which sufficient data are available to evaluate?


  • What is the place of acupuncture in the treatment of various conditions for which sufficient data are available, in comparison with or in combination with other interventions (including no intervention)?


  • What is known about the biological effects of acupuncture that helps us understand how it works?


  • What issues need to be addressed so that acupuncture may be appropriately incorporated into today’s health care system?


  • What are the directions for future research?

The primary sponsors of this meeting were the National Human Genome Research Institute and the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research. The conference was cosponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the NIH Office of Rare Diseases; the National Institute of Mental Health; the National Institute of Nursing Research; the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health; the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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1. What is the efficacy of acupuncture, compared with placebo or sham acupuncture, in the conditions for which sufficient data are available to evaluate?

Acupuncture is a complex intervention that may vary for different patients with similar chief complaints. The number and length of treatments and the specific points used may vary among individuals and during the course of treatment. Given this reality, it is perhaps encouraging that there exist a number of studies of sufficient quality to assess the efficacy of acupuncture for certain conditions.

According to contemporary research standards, there is a paucity of high-quality research assessing efficacy of acupuncture compared with placebo or sham acupuncture. The vast majority of papers studying acupuncture in the biomedical literature consist of case reports, case series, or intervention studies with designs inadequate to assess efficacy.

This discussion of efficacy refers to needle acupuncture (manual or electroacupuncture) because the published research is primarily on needle acupuncture and often does not encompass the full breadth of acupuncture techniques and practices. The controlled trials usually have only involved adults and did not involve long-term (i.e., years) acupuncture treatment.

Efficacy of a treatment assesses the differential effect of a treatment when compared with placebo or another treatment modality using a double-blind controlled trial and a rigidly defined protocol. Papers should describe enrollment procedures, eligibility criteria, description of the clinical characteristics of the subjects, methods for diagnosis, and a description of the protocol (i.e., randomization method, specific definition of treatment, and control conditions, including length of treatment, and number of acupuncture sessions). Optimal trials should also use standardized outcomes and appropriate statistical analyses. This assessment of efficacy focuses on high-quality trials comparing acupuncture with sham acupuncture or placebo.

Response Rate. As with other interventions, some individuals are poor responders to specific acupuncture protocols. Both animal and human laboratory and clinical experience suggest that the majority of subjects respond to acupuncture, with a minority not responding. Some of the clinical research outcomes, however, suggest that a larger percentage may not respond. The reason for this paradox is unclear and may reflect the current state of the research.

Efficacy for Specific Disorders. There is clear evidence that needle acupuncture is efficacious for adult post-operative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and probably for the nausea of pregnancy.

Much of the research is on various pain problems. There is evidence of efficacy for postoperative dental pain. There are reasonable studies (although sometimes only single studies) showing relief of pain with acupuncture on diverse pain conditions such as menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, and fibromyalgia. This suggests that acupuncture may have a more general effect on pain. However, there are also studies that do not find efficacy for acupuncture in pain.

There is evidence that acupuncture does not demonstrate efficacy for cessation of smoking and may not be efficacious for some other conditions.

While many other conditions have received some attention in the literature and, in fact, the research suggests some exciting potential areas for the use of acupuncture, the quality or quantity of the research evidence is not sufficient to provide firm evidence of efficacy at this time.

Sham Acupuncture. A commonly used control group is sham acupuncture, using techniques that are not intended to stimulate known acupuncture points. However, there is disagreement on correct needle placement. Also, particularly in the studies on pain, sham acupuncture often seems to have either intermediate effects between the placebo and Ôreal’ acupuncture points or effects similar to those of the Ôreal’ acupuncture points. Placement of a needle in any position elicits a biological response that complicates the interpretation of studies involving sham acupuncture. Thus, there is substantial controversy over the use of sham acupuncture as control groups. This may be less of a problem in studies not involving pain.

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2. What is the place of acupuncture in the treatment of various conditions for which sufficient data are available, in comparison with or in combination with other interventions (including no intervention)?

Assessing the usefulness of a medical intervention in practice differs from assessing formal efficacy. In conventional practice, clinicians make decisions based on the characteristics of the patient, clinical experience, potential for harm, and information from colleagues and the medical literature. In addition, when more than one treatment is possible, the clinician may make the choice taking into account the patient’s preferences. While it is often thought that there is substantial research evidence to support conventional medical practices; this is frequently not that case. This does not mean that these treatments are ineffective. The data in support of acupuncture are as strong as those for many accepted Western medical therapies.

One of the advantages of acupuncture is that the incidence of adverse effects is substantially lower than that of many drugs or other accepted medical procedures used for the same conditions. As an example, musculoskeletal conditions, such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and “tennis elbow,” or epicondylitis, are conditions for which acupuncture may be beneficial. These painful conditions are often treated with, among other things, anti-inflammatory medications (aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.) or with steroid injections. Both medical interventions have a potential for deleterious side effects, but are still widely used, and are considered acceptable treatment. The evidence supporting these therapies is no better than that for acupucture.

In addition, ample clinical experience, supported by some research data, suggests that acupuncture may be a reasonable option for a number of clinical conditions. Examples are postoperative pain and myofascial and low back pain. Examples of disorders for which the research evidence is less convincing but for which there are some positive clinical reports include addiction, stroke rehabilitation, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteoarthritis, and headache. Acupuncture treatment for many conditions such as asthma, addiction, or smoking cessation should be part of a comprehensive management program.

Many other conditions have been treated by acupuncture; the World Health Organization, for example, has listed more than 40 for which the technique may be indicated.

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3. What is known about the biological effects of acupuncture that helps us understand how it works?

Many studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that acupuncture can cause multiple biological responses. These responses can occur locally, i.e., at or close to the site of application, or at a distance, mediated mainly by sensory neurons to many structures within the central nervous system. This can lead to activation of pathways affecting various physiological systems in the brain as well as in the periphery. A focus of attention has been the role of endogenous opioids in acupuncture analgesia. Considerable evidence supports the claim that opioid peptides are released during acupuncture and that the analgesic effects of acupuncture are at least partially explained by their actions. That opioid antagonists such as naloxone reverse the analgesic effects of acupuncture further strengthens this hypothesis. Stimulation by acupuncture may also activate the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, resulting in a broad spectrum of systemic effects. Alteration in the secretion of neurotransmitters and neurohormones and changes in the regulation of blood flow, both centrally and peripherally, have been documented. There is also evidence that there are alterations in immune functions produced by acupuncture. Which of these and other physiological changes mediate clinical effects is at present unclear.

Despite considerable efforts to understand the anatomy and physiology of the “acupuncture points,” the definition and characterization of these points remains controversial. Even more elusive is the scientific basis of some of the key traditional Eastern medical concepts such as the circulation of Qi, the meridian system, and the five phases theory, which are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information but continue to play an important role in the evaluation of patients and the formulation of treatment in acupuncture.

Some of the biological effects of acupuncture have also been observed when “sham” acupuncture points are stimulated, highlighting the importance of defining appropriate control groups in assessing biological changes purported to be due to acupuncture. Such findings raise questions regarding the specificity of these biological changes. In addition, similar biological alterations including the release of endogenous opioids and changes in blood pressure have been observed after painful stimuli, vigorous exercise, and/or relaxation training; it is at present unclear to what extent acupuncture shares similar biological mechanisms.

It should be noted also that for any therapeutic intervention, including acupuncture, the so-called “non-specific” effects account for a substantial proportion of its effectiveness, and thus should not be casually discounted. Many factors may profoundly determine therapeutic outcome including the quality of the relationship between the clinician and the patient, the degree of trust, the expectations of the patient, the compatibility of the backgrounds and belief systems of the clinician and the patient, as well as a myriad of factors that together define the therapeutic milieu.

Although much remains unknown regarding the mechanism(s) that might mediate the therapeutic effect of acupuncture, the panel is encouraged that a number of significant acupuncture-related biological changes can be identified and carefully delineated. Further research in this direction not only is important for elucidating the phenomena associated with acupuncture, but also has the potential for exploring new pathways in human physiology not previously examined in a systematic manner.

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4. What issues need to be addressed so that acupuncture may be appropriately incorporated into today’s health care system?

The integration of acupuncture into today’s health care system will be facilitated by a better understanding among providers of the language and practices of both the Eastern and Western health care communities. Acupuncture focuses on a holistic, energy-based approach to the patient rather than a disease-oriented diagnostic and treatment model.

An important factor for the integration of acupuncture into the health care system is the training and credentialing of acupuncture practitioners by the appropriate state agencies. This is necessary to allow the public and other health practitioners to identify qualified acupuncture practitioners. The acupuncture educational community has made substantial progress in this area and is encouraged to continue along this path. Educational standards have been established for training of physician and non-physician acupuncturists. Many acupuncture educational programs are accredited by an agency that is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. A national credentialing agency exists that is recognized by some of the major professional acupuncture organizations and provides examinations for entry-level competency in the field.

A majority of States provide licensure or registration for acupuncture practitioners. Because some acupuncture practitioners have limited English proficiency, credentialing and licensing examinations should be provided in languages other than English where necessary. There is variation in the titles that are conferred through these processes, and the requirements to obtain licensure vary widely. The scope of practice allowed under these State requirements varies as well. While States have the individual prerogative to set standards for licensing professions, harmonization in these areas will provide greater confidence in the qualifications of acupuncture practitioners. For example, not all States recognize the same credentialing examination, thus making reciprocity difficult.

The occurrence of adverse events in the practice of acupuncture has been documented to be extremely low. However, these events have occurred in rare occasions, some of which are life threatening (e.g., pneumothorax). Therefore, appropriate safeguards for the protection of patients and consumers need to be in place. Patients should be fully informed of their treatment options, expected prognosis, relative risk, and safety practices to minimize these risks prior to their receipt of acupuncture. This information must be provided in a manner that is linguistically and culturally appropriate to the patient. Use of acupuncture needles should always follow FDA regulations, including use of sterile, single-use needles. It is noted that these practices are already being done by many acupuncture practitioners; however, these practices should be uniform. Recourse for patient grievance and professional censure are provided through credentialing and licensing procedures and are available through appropriate State jurisdictions.

It has been reported that more than 1 million Americans currently receive acupuncture each year. Continued access to qualified acupuncture professionals for appropriate conditions should be ensured. Because many individuals seek health care treatment from both acupuncturists and physicians, communication between these providers should be strengthened and improved. If a patient is under the care of an acupuncturist and a physician, both practitioners should be informed. Care should be taken so that important medical problems are not overlooked. Patients and providers have a responsibility to facilitate this communication.

There is evidence that some patients have limited access to acupuncture services because of inability to pay. Insurance companies can decrease or remove financial barriers to access depending on their willingness to provide coverage for appropriate acupuncture services. An increasing number of insurance companies are either considering this possibility or now provide coverage for acupuncture services. Where there are State health insurance plans, and for populations served by Medicare or Medicaid, expansion of coverage to include appropriate acupuncture services would also help remove financial barriers to access.

As acupuncture is incorporated into today’s health care system, and further research clarifies the role of acupuncture for various health conditions, it is expected that dissemination of this information to health care practitioners, insurance providers, policymakers, and the general public will lead to more informed decisions in regard to the appropriate use of acupucture.

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5. What are the directions for future research?

The incorporation of any new clinical intervention into accepted practice faces more scrutiny now than ever before. The demands of evidence-based medicine, outcomes research, managed care systems of health care delivery, and a plethora of therapeutic choices makes the acceptance of new treatments an arduous process. The difficulties are accentuated when the treatment is based on theories unfamiliar to Western medicine and its practitioners. It is important, therefore, that the evaluation of acupuncture for the treatment of specific conditions be carried out carefully, using designs which can withstand rigorous scrutiny. In order to further the evaluation of the role of acupuncture in the management of various conditions, the following general areas for future research are suggested.

What are the demographics and patterns of use of acupuncture in the U.S. and other countries?


There is currently limited information on basic questions such as who uses acupuncture, for what indications is acupuncture most commonly sought, what variations in experience and techniques used exist among acupuncture practitioners, and whether there are differences in these patterns by geography or ethnic group. Descriptive epidemiologic studies can provide insight into these and other questions. This information can in turn be used to guide future research and to identify areas of greatest public health concern.

Can the efficacy of acupuncture for various conditions for which it is used or for which it shows promise be demonstrated?


Relatively few high-quality, randomized, controlled trials have been published on the effects of acupuncture. Such studies should be designed in a rigorous manner to allow evaluation of the effectiveness of acupuncture. Such studies should include experienced acupuncture practitioners in order to design and deliver appropriate interventions. Emphasis should be placed on studies that examine acupuncture as used in clinical practice, and that respect the theoretical basis for acupuncture therapy.

Although randomized controlled trials provide a strong basis for inferring causality, other study designs such as used in clinical epidemiology or outcomes research can also provide important insights regarding the usefulness of acupuncture for various conditions. There have been few such studies in the acupuncture literature.

Do different theoretical bases for acupuncture result in different treatment outcomes?

Competing theoretical orientations (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, French) currently exist that might predict divergent therapeutic approaches (i.e., the use of different acupuncture points). Research projects should be designed to assess the relative merit of these divergent approaches, as well to compare these systems with treatment programs using fixed acupuncture points.

In order to fully assess the efficacy of acupuncture, studies should be designed to examine not only fixed acupuncture points, but also the Eastern medical systems that provide the foundation for acupuncture therapy, including the choice of points. In addition to assessing the effect of acupuncture in context, this would also provide the opportunity to determine if Eastern medical theories predict more effective acupuncture points, as well as to examine the relative utility of competing systems (e.g., Chinese vs. Japanese vs. French) for such purposes.

What areas of public policy research can provide guidance for the integration of acupuncture into today’s health care system?

The incorporation of acupuncture as a treatment raises numerous questions of public policy. These include issues of access, cost-effectiveness, reimbursement by state, federal, and private payors, and training, licensure, and accreditation. These public policy issues must be founded on quality epidemiologic and demographic data and effectiveness research.

Can further insight into the biological basis for acupuncture be gained?

Mechanisms which provide a Western scientific explanation for some of the effects of acupuncture are beginning to emerge. This is encouraging, and may provide novel insights into neural, endocrine and other physiological processes. Research should be supported to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, and such research may lead to improvements in treatment.

Does an organized energetic system exist in the human body that has clinical applications?

Although biochemical and physiologic studies have provided insight into some of the biologic effects of acupuncture, acupuncture practice is based on a very different model of energy balance. This theory may provide new insights to medical research that may further elucidate the basis for acupuncture.

How do the approaches and answers to these questions differ among populations that have used acupuncture as a part of its healing tradition for centuries, compared to populations that have only recently begun to incorporate acupuncture into health care?


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Conclusions and Recommendations

Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely practiced in the United States. There have been many studies of its potential usefulness. However, many of these studies provide equivocal results because of design, sample size, and other factors. The issue is further complicated by inherent difficulties in the use of appropriate controls, such as placebo and sham acupuncture groups.

However, promising results have emerged, for example, efficacy of acupuncture in adult post-operative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in post-operative dental pain. There are other situations such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma where acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program. Further research is likely to uncover additional areas where acupuncture interventions will be useful.

Findings from basic research have begun to elucidate the mechanisms of action of acupuncture, including the release of opioids and other peptides in the central nervous system and the periphery and changes in neuroendocrine function. Although much needs to be accomplished, the emergence of plausible mechanisms for the therapeutic effects of acupuncture is encouraging.

The introduction of acupuncture into the choice of treatment modalities that are readily available to the public is in its early stages. Issues of training, licensure, and reimbursement remain to be clarified. There is sufficient evidence, however, of acupuncture’s value to expand its use into conventional medicine and to encourage further studies of its physiology and clinical value.

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Consensus
Development Panel


David J. Ramsay, D.M., D.Phil.

Panel and Conference Chairperson

President

University of Maryland, Baltimore

Baltimore, Maryland


Marjorie A. Bowman, M.D., M.P.A.

Professor and Chair

Department of Family Practice and
Community Medicine

University of Pennsylvania Health System

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Philip E. Greenman, D.O., F.A.A.O.

Associate Dean

College of Osteopathic Medicine

Michigan State University

East Lansing, Michigan


Stephen P. Jiang, A.C.S.W.

Executive Director

Association of Asian Pacific Community
Health Organizations

Oakland, California


Lawrence H. Kushi, Sc.D.

Associate Professor

Division of Epidemiology

University of Minnesota School of Public
Health

Minneapolis, Minnesota


Susan Leeman, Ph.D.

Professor

Department of Pharmacology

Boston University School of Medicine

Boston, Massachusetts


Keh-Ming Lin, M.D., M.P.H.

Professor of Psychiatry, UCLA;

Director, Research Center on the
Psychobiology of Ethnicity

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center

Torrance, California


Daniel E. Moerman, Ph.D.

William E. Stirton Professor of
Anthropology

University of Michigan, Dearborn

Ypsilanti, Michigan


Sidney H. Schnoll, M.D., Ph.D.

Chairman

Division of Substance Abuse Medicine

Professor of Internal Medicine and
Psychiatry

Medical College of Virginia

Richmond, Virginia


Marcellus Walker, M.D.

Honesdale, Pennsylvania


Christine Waternaux, Ph.D.

Associate Professor and Chief

Biostatistics Division

Columbia University and New York State
Psychiatric Institute

New York, New York


Leonard A. Wisneski, M.D., F.A.C.P.

Medical Director, Bethesda Center

American WholeHealth

Bethesda, Maryland

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Speakers

Abass Alavi, M.D.

“The Role of Physiologic Imaging in the
Investigation of the Effects of Pain and
Acupuncture on Regional Cerebral
Function”

Professor of Radiology

Chief, Division of Nuclear Medicine

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Brian M. Berman, M.D.

“Overview of Clinical Trials on
Acupuncture for Pain”

Associate Professor of Family Medicine

Director

Center for Complementary Medicine

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore, Maryland


Stephen Birch, Lic.Ac., Ph.D.

“Overview of the Efficacy of Acupuncture
in the Treatment of Headache
and Face and Neck Pain”

Anglo-Dutch Institute for Oriental Medicine

The Netherlands


Hannah V. Bradford, M.Ac.

“Late-Breaking Data and Other News From
the Clinical Research Symposium (CRS)
on Acupuncture at NIH”

Acupuncturist

Society for Acupuncture Research

Bethesda, Maryland


Xiaoding Cao, M.D., Ph.D.

“Protective Effect of Acupuncture on
Immunosuppression”

Professor and Director

Institute of Acupuncture Research

Shanghai Medical University

Shanghai, China


Daniel C. Cherkin, Ph.D.

“Efficacy of Acupuncture in Treating Low
Back Pain: A Systematic Review of the
Literature”

Senior Scientific Investigator

Group Health Center for Health Studies

Seattle, Washington


Patricia Culliton, M.A., L.Ac.

“Current Utilization of Acupuncture by
United States Patients”

Director

Alternative Medicine Division

Hennepin County Medical Center

Minneapolis, Minnesota


David L. Diehl, M.D.

“Gastrointestinal Indications”

Assistant Professor of Medicine

UCLA Digestive Disease Center

University of California, Los Angeles

Los Angeles, California


Kevin V. Ergil, L.Ac.

“Acupuncture Licensure, Training, and
Certification in the United States”

Dean

Pacific Institute of Oriental Medicine

New York, New York


Richard Hammerschlag, Ph.D.

“Methodological and Ethical Issues in
Acupuncture Research”

Academic Dean and Research Director

Yo San University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine

Santa Monica, California


Ji-Sheng Han, M.D.

“Acupuncture Activates Endogenous
Systems of Analgesia”

Professor

Neuroscience Research Center

Beijing Medical University

Beijing, China


Joseph M. Helms, M.D.

“Acupuncture Around the World in Modern
Medical Practice”

Founding President

American Academy of
Medical Acupuncture

Berkeley, California


Kim A. Jobst, D.M., M.R.C.P.

“Respiratory Indications”

University Department of Medicine and
Therapeutics

Gardiner Institute

Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom


Gary Kaplan, D.O.

“Efficacy of Acupuncture in the Treatment
of Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal
Pain”

President

Medical Acupuncture Research Foundation

Arlington, Virginia


Ted J. Kaptchuk, O.M.D.

“Acupuncture: History, Context, and
Long-Term Perspectives”

Associate Director

Center for Alternative Medicine Research

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Boston, Massachusetts


Janet Konefal, Ph.D., Ed.D., M.P.H.,
C.A.

“Acupuncture and Addictions”

Associate Professor

Acupuncture Research and Training
Programs

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Sciences

University of Miami School of Medicine

Miami, Florida


Lixing Lao, Ph.D., L.Ac.

“Dental and Postoperative Pain”

Assistant Professor of Family Medicine

Department of Family Medicine and
Complementary Medicine

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore, Maryland


C. David Lytle, Ph.D.

“Safety and Regulation of Acupuncture
Needles and Other Devices”

Research Biophysicist

Center for Devices and Radiological Health

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Rockville, Maryland


Margaret A. Naeser, Ph.D., Lic.Ac.,
Dipl. Ac.

“Neurological Rehabilitation: Acupuncture
and Laser Acupuncture To Treat Paralysis
in Stroke and Other Paralytic Conditions
and Pain in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome”

Research Professor of Neurology

Neuroimaging Section

Boston University Aphasia Research Center

Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Boston, Massachusetts


Lorenz K.Y. Ng, M.D.

“What Is Acupuncture?”

Clinical Professor of Neurology

George Washington University
School of Medicine

Medical Director

Pain Management Program

National Rehabilitation Hospital

Bethesda, Maryland


Andrew Parfitt, Ph.D.

“Nausea and Vomiting”

Researcher

Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology

National Institute of Child Health and
Human Development

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Bruce Pomeranz, M.D., Ph.D.

“Summary of Acupuncture and Pain”

Professor

Departments of Zoology and Physiology

University of Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, Canada


Judith C. Shlay, M.D.

“Neuropathic Pain”

Assistant Professor in Family Medicine

Denver Public Health

Denver, Colorado


Alan I. Trachtenberg, M.D., M.P.H.

“American Acupuncture: Primary Care,
Public Health, and Policy”

Medical Officer

Office of Science Policy and
Communication

National Institute on Drug Abuse

National Institutes of Health

Rockville, Maryland


Jin Yu, M.D.

“Induction of Ovulation With Acupuncture”

Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital

Shanghai Medical University

Shanghai, China

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Planning
Committee

Alan I. Trachtenberg, M.D., M.P.H.

Planning Committee Chairperson

Medical Officer

Office of Science Policy and
Communication

National Institute on Drug Abuse

National Institutes of Health

Rockville, Maryland


Brian M. Berman, M.D.

Associate Professor of Family Medicine

Director

Center for Complementary Medicine

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore, Maryland


Hannah V. Bradford, M.Ac.

Acupuncturist

Society for Acupuncture Research

Bethesda, Maryland


Elsa Bray

Program Analyst

Office of Medical Applications of Research

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Patricia Bryant, Ph.D.

Director

Behavior, Pain, Oral Function,
and Epidemiology Program

Division of Extramural Research

National Institute of Dental Research

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Claire M. Cassidy, Ph.D.

Director

Paradigms Found Consulting

Bethesda, Maryland


Jerry Cott, Ph.D.

Head

Pharmacology Treatment Program

National Institute of Mental Health

National Institutes of Health

Rockville, Maryland


George W. Counts, M.D.

Director

Office of Research on Minority
and Women’s Health

National Institute of Allergy
and Infectious Diseases

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Patricia D. Culliton, M.A., L.Ac.

Director

Alternative Medicine Division

Hennepin County Medical Center

Minneapolis, Minnesota


Jerry M. Elliott

Program Management and Analysis Officer

Office of Medical Applications of Research

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


John H. Ferguson, M.D.

Director

Office of Medical Applications of Research

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Anita Greene, M.A.

Public Affairs Program Officer

Office of Alternative Medicine

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Debra S. Grossman, M.A.

Program Officer

Treatment Research Branch

Division of Clinical and Services Research

National Institute on Drug Abuse

National Institutes of Health

Rockville, Maryland


William H. Hall

Director of Communications

Office of Medical Applications of Research

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Richard Hammerschlag, Ph.D.

Academic Dean and Research Director

Yo San University of Traditional
Chinese Medicine

Santa Monica, California


Freddie Ann Hoffman, M.D.

Deputy Director, Medicine Staff

Office of Health Affairs

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Rockville, Maryland


Wayne B. Jonas, M.D.

Director

Office of Alternative Medicine

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Gary Kaplan, D.O.

President

Medical Acupuncture Research Foundation

Arlington, Virginia


Carol Kari, R.N., L.Ac., M.Ac.

President

Maryland Acupuncture Society

Member, National Alliance

Kensington, Maryland


Charlotte R. Kerr, R.N., M.P.H., M.Ac.

Practitioner of Traditional Acupuncture

The Center for Traditional Acupuncture

Columbia, Maryland


Thomas J. Kiresuk, Ph.D.

Director

Center for Addiction and Alternative
Medicine Research

Minneapolis, Minnesota


Cheryl Kitt, Ph.D.

Program Officer

Division of Convulsive, Infectious and
Immune Disorders

National Institute of Neurological
Disorders and Stroke

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Janet Konefal, Ph.D., M.P.H., L.Ac.

Associate Professor

Acupuncture Research and Training
Programs

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Sciences

University of Miami School of Medicine

Miami, Florida


Sung J. Liao, M.D., D.P.H.

Clinical Professor of Surgical Sciences

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial
Surgery

New York University College of Dentistry

Consultant

Rust Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine

New York University College of Medicine

Middlebury, Connecticut


Michael C. Lin, Ph.D.

Health Scientist Administrator

Division of Heart and Vascular Diseases

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


C. David Lytle, Ph.D.

Research Biophysicist

Center for Devices and Radiological Health

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Rockville, Maryland


James D. Moran, Lic.Ac., D.Ac.,
C.A.A.P., C.A.S.

President Emeritus and Doctor of
Acupuncture

American Association of Oriental Medicine

The Belchertown Wellness Center

Belchertown, Massachusetts


Richard L. Nahin, Ph.D.

Program Officer, Extramural Affairs

Office of Alternative Medicine

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Lorenz K.Y. Ng, M.D., R.Ac.

Clinical Professor of Neurology

George Washington University
School of Medicine

Medical Director

Pain Management Program

National Rehabilitation Hospital

Bethesda, Maryland


James Panagis, M.D.

Director, Orthopaedics Program

Musculoskeletal Branch

National Institute of Arthritis and
Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


David J. Ramsay, D.M., D.Phil.

Panel and Conference Chairperson

President

University of Maryland, Baltimore

Baltimore, Maryland


Charles R. Sherman, Ph.D.

Deputy Director

Office of Medical Applications of Research

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Virginia Taggart, M.P.H.

Health Scientist Administrator

Division of Lung Diseases

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda, Maryland


Xiao-Ming Tian, M.D., R.Ac.

Clinical Consultant on Acupuncture for the
National Institutes of Health

Director

Academy of Acupuncture and Chinese
Medicine

Bethesda, Maryland


Claudette Varricchio, D.S.N.

Program Director

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control

National Cancer Institute

National Institutes of Health

Rockville, Maryland


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Conference
Sponsors

Office of Medical Applications of Research, NIH

John H. Ferguson, M.D. Director

Office of Alternative Medicine, NIH

Wayne B. Jonas, M.D., Director

Conference Cosponsors

National Cancer Institute

Richard D. Klausner, M.D., Director

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Claude Lenfant, M.D., Director

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Stephen I. Katz, M.D., Ph.D., Director

National Institute of Dental Research

Harold C. Slavkin, D.D.S., Director

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D., Director

Office of Research on Women’s Health, NIH

Vivian W. Pinn, M.D., Director

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