The Medical Botany of John Bartram

When European settlers began to arrive in what is now Massachusetts at the
beginning of the 17th century, they brought the plants and remedies they
knew, along with a few of the famous works on herbal medicine that were
consulted by all. For instance, it is known that Dodoens’ New Herbal
was on the Mayflower when it landed at Plymouth in 1620.1 This important
Dutch herbal was translated into English in 1578 by Henry Lyte,2 and alongside
of such well-thumbed English herbals as Gerard (1633),3 Parkinson (1629),4
and Culpeper (1649),5 formed a body of works that were important sources
of information about herbal-based medicines eventually available from early
colonial apothecary shops. So important were these books, that they were
kept on the mantle, along with the family Bible,6 often made use of by “wise
women” or housewives with the knowledge of simples, or herbal remedies.7




These herbals listed the botanical affinities, descriptions, uses and preparations
of European herbs, with the addition of a number of famous exotic remedies,
such as ginger and cinnamon, but few, if any medicinal plants indigenous
only from North America. Besides the herbals, a number of English medical
works, consulted more by doctors, or professional practitioners, such as
the many editions of the Edinburgh New Dispensatories were common.8 American
editions of these works, for instance by Lewis and Duncan were printed,
but still did not contain more than a handful of American plants–until
about 1818, when Jacob Dyckman, a physician from New York added over 50
native American medicinal plants to the 8th (and last) Edinburgh New
Dispensatory
, with their descriptions and uses.9



Since there was generally a shortage of trained physicians and pharmacists,
or even such interim practitioners as clergymen with medical knowledge in
the Colonies,10,11,12,13 the common person might have to depend upon one
of the popular herbals of the day; or other works such as Almanacs, which
sometimes gave information on popular medicines,14 family health advisors,
such as Buchan’s popular Domsestic Medicine, first printed in America
in 1771,15 among other works.16



Another important source of information on the indigenous drug plants was
the Native American materia medica. It is likely that a number of important
official and non-official drugs were learned from the first inhabitants
of America and the extent of the impact of this knowledge on future medical
practice has been discussed. For a critical discussion, see Cowan’s The
impact of the materia medica of the North American Indians on professional
practice,
17 or Vogel, for a more detailed, though less critical view.18




The medical skill of the native American people has been observed and written
about in detail,19,,,20,21,22,23 and it is known that they had an extensive
materia medica. However, knowledge of medicinal plants of diverse tribes,
while sometimes shared freely with the white man in the early 1700s, did
not find its way into print, except in rare bits and pieces,24,25 until
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By this time it must be considered
that much of this tribal knowledge was considerably influenced by Eurpean
culture.



The various works already mentioned, then, remained nearly the sole written
source of medical information to the colonists until the close of the 18th
century, when, for instance, medical men such as Benjamin Smith Barton (1810)
wrote one of the most extensive works on indigenous materia medica.26



It is with considerable interest, then, that any scrap of writing on American
medicinal plants before 1800 is encountered. One of the more interesting
early essays on American remedies of the mid 18th century is from John Bartram,
who was among the most respected botanists of the colonial era. His eminence
is supported by a statement of Linneaus that Bartram was “the greatest
natural botanist in the world.” It is also of consequence that Bartram’s
name was second only to Benjamin Franklin’s on the list of original members
of the Amerian Philosophical Society (1742), and that he was eventually
appointed botanist and naturalist of the American Colonies to the King,
George III.27 Until now, this work has not been reprinted and is largely
unavailable, except in a few rare book rooms of libraries in the northeastern
U.S. The author is gratified, therefore, to make the entire text of this
work available–hopefully to be read and appreciated by a wider audience.
The text was entered directly from the copy at the Harvard Medical school
library into a laptop computer.



To this scarce mid-18th century work on medical botany is added a short
sketch of the life and work of John Bartram and an elucidation of the probable
sources that Bartram drew the material from to write the article. Preceding
the reprint of Bartram’s work is a table of the plants he writes about with
their modern Latin names.



JOHN BARTRAM and his MEDICAL BOTANY



The following short sketch of Bartram’s life and career were taken mainly
from William Bartram’s short biography of his father,28 the Dictionary
of Scientific Biography,
29 Earnest,30 Darlington,31 Gordon,32 and Youman??33




The grandfather of John Bartram, Richard Bartram, was born and lived his
entire life in Derbyshire, England. Richard’s son, John, moved to Pennsylvania
in 1682, the year Philadelphia was founded. Of his three sons, John, Isaac,
and William, the latter (William) also had three sons–one of which was
John Bartram, the botanist. The family had a peculiar fancy for the names
William and John, and one, if not two, of the names were used each generation,
often making things a bit confusing.



John was born in 1699, and at the age of 24 was already married and a respected
member of the community. At the same age, he purchased a tract of land consisting
of 102 acres and began to farm.



There are conflicting ideas about John’s early education, but his letters
demonstrate that he had little formal training in grammar; it is uncertain
if he pursued even the moderately adequate education available to him in
the early rural Colonies. Bartram himself mentions the lack of polish in
his writing.



Other accounts indicate that he had a keen interest in nature and science
at an early age. Darlington says of him,



“He had, however, all or most of the education that could at that
time be acquired in country schools; and whenever an opportunity offered
he studied such of the Latin and Greek grammars and classics, as his circumstances
enabled him to purchase; and he always sought the society of the most learned
and virtuous men. He had a very early inclination to the study of physic
and surgery…and, in many instances he gave great relief to his poor neighbours.
It is extremely probable that, as most of his medicines were derived from
the vegetable kingdom, this circumstance might point out to him the necessity
of, and excite a desire for, the study of Botany.”



In 1727, at the age of 28, his first wife Mary died, but two years later
he married Ann, with whom he had nine children. His son William was later
to become a close companion in some of his botanical travels and eventually
surpassed his father in learning and science, writing an important and influential
early American literary work, The Travels of William Bartram.34



John seems to have been a fair businessman, buying and selling property
and by sheer energy and industriousness, made a moderate success at farming.
He even split heavy rocks and built his house from stone with his own hands.




As he grew older, he began to correspond with some of the greatest naturalists
of the day, both in Europe and America, including Linnaeus, Gronovius, Clayton,
Kalm, and Peter Collinson. Collinson was an especially important connection,
which lasted for 33 years, from 1735 to 1768. Collinson commissioned Bartram
to collect and send plants and seed to himself and others, both scientists
and wealthy supporters of science. Bartram did this with amazing energy
and skill, making many arduous and perilous trips throughout the eastern
colonies, often traveling alone. He seemed to have a native genius for science,
especially botany–in fact it was Linnaeus himself who called him “the
greatest natural botanist in the world
.



It is often written that Bartram founded the first botanical garden
in the U.S. (about 1729-30), at his farm on the Schuylkill river, then 3
miles from Philadelphia. This was not the case, as his garden was preceded,
at least, by those of a sect of German mystics led by Kelpius on the Wissahickon
river, and of Dr. Christopher Witt at Germantown.35 Today, his famous garden
is immortalized and stands right in the thick of the city as a memorial
park.



Darlington, as well as Bartram’s son William have both stated in their writings
that John took an early interest in the practice of medicine and the medicinal
uses of plants. An interest which may have been an important factor in the
development of his love of botany.



It is known that he owned copies of Salmon, Culpeper and Turner, who were
given to him by his mentor James Logan–all about 1729, along with Parkinson’s
Paridisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris. Logan was the secretary to
William Penn, and later became Governor of the Province. He was in constant
negotiations with the Iriquois, who often came to his Germantown estate.
Here, Logan may have introduced him to native American people who had knowledge
of the medicinal uses of the local plants he writes about in his Appendix
to the 3rd American edition of Short’s Medicina Britanica, the object
of this present reprint.



Bartram was not a prolific writer, but his interest in medicinal plants
is shown by an essay of his that was printed in the American Almanac
(Philadelphia) for 1741 by John German on the “True Indian physic,
or ipecacuanha” (Gillenia trifoliata, G. stipulacea or less
likely Apocynum cannabinum), which he said to be useful in the treatment
of “the bloody flux” (dysentery). This publication is one of the
earliest in American pharmacognosy and was published in Ben Franklin’s Poor
Richard’s Almanack
the same year36 (Guerra, Journal of the History
of Medicine:
July, 1961).



Besides the opportunities to meet Native Americans and peruse Logan’s extensive
library, it is known that Logan arranged for Bartram to accompany an interpreter,
Conrad Weiser, on the journey to Onondaga (near Lake Ontario), which was
to be one of his longest botanical expeditions. This would have allowed
a perfect opportunity to learn the uses of plants from the Iriquois. After
this trip, Bartram wrote Observations on the inhabitants, Climate, soil,
rivers, productions worthy of notice, made by John Bartram in his travels
from Pennsylvania to Onondaga, Oswego, and the Lake Ontario in Canada
(London,
J. Whiston & B. White, 1751. vii, 94 p., 20 cm.). This was published in
the same year as Description…, adding support to the possibility
that Bartram gathered some of the therapeutic informationoon the native
plants listed in this latter work from this same expedition.



It is almost universally agreed that John Bartram was not only a very gifted
scientist and botanist–largely self-taught, but was very even-tempered
and cheerful–he seemed to have been blessed with a kindly and energetic
temperament. He was said to be “naturally industrious and active, both
in body and mind,” and was of exceedingly moral and spiritual character.
Bartram was a Quaker and very much acknowledged the influence of a higher
guiding power all through his life. It is to his credit that he came to
be strongly against slavery, even before this was common. It is often told
that Bartram always ate dinner seated at table with his “negros,”
to whom he had freed and paid a salary–his kindness developed a strong
loyalty and friendship with them in his later years.



The work that follows is an exact copy of Bartram’s Description, virtues
and uses of sundry plants of these northern parts of America, and particularly
of the newly discovered Indian cure for the venereal disease.
This 7-page
work was published separately in 1751, but was usually bound with Medicina
Britannica: containing a particular account of their nature, virtues, and
uses
of Thomas Short, a popular English materia medica, which was reprinted
by Franklin and Hall, based on the 2nd English edition, as a 3rd American
edition.37 It is said that Franklin knew of the need for the availability
of more practical information of the medical uses of native American plants.
Besides the appendix, the Short American 3rd edition also contained “a
preface by Mr. John Bartram, botanist of Pennsylvania, and his notes throughout
the work, shewing the places where many of the described plants are to be
found in these parts of America, their differences in name, appearance and
virtue, from those of the same kind in Europe.”



Since there is some confusion about the identity of Bartram’s plants, the
following table is added, where I have considered the common and Latin names,
as well as the descriptions to arrive at a modern binomial.38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45
I have indicated where the name of a given plant may be in question. Ten
out of twenty plants (50%) were “official” in the United States
Pharmacopeia
or National Formulary at some time which gives an
indication of their popularity and eventual use in medicine.46,47



List of Plants Included in Bartram’s Appendix

Bartram’s Plant Names Latin Binomial Official Drug Plant



Aralia (Spikenard, Wild Liquorice) Aralia racemosa USP 1820-70


Aralia Caule Nudo (Sarsaparilla) Aralia nudicaulis USP 1820-70

Erigeron possibly Erigeron philadelphicus L., USP 1820-50

Barton mentions (in Collections] this USP 1820-70

species as being “one of the most (E. canadensis)

common plants;” or E. canadensis

Saururus (Aristolochia) Saururus cernuus never official

Collinsonia Collinsonia canadensis never official

Sanguinaria (Red Root, Turmerick) Sanguinaria canadensis USP 1820-IX


NF V-VII

Virga-aurea (a kind of Golden Rod) possibly Solidago calcicola Fern.,
never official

said by Fermald to be “our closest

approach to the European S.

virgaura
L.;” not S. canadensis

Jacea (Throat-wort) The old name for Centauria, but never official


more likely the related Liatrus

spicata
(L.) Willd., which fits Bar-

tram’s description and was the

only plant known as Throat-wort

Uvulary (Formerly, Solomon’s Seal) probably Uvularia perfoliata L.,
never official

possibly U. grandiflora J.E. Smith

Triostreospermum (Dr. Tinker’s Triosteum perfoliatum USP 1820-70


weed, gentian, Fever Root)

Blazing Star (Devil’s-bit) Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray NF IV-VII


Star grass Aletris farinosa L. USP 1820-60

NF IV-VII

Liriodendrum (Poplar) Liriodendron tulipifera L. USP 1820-70

Apocinum Asclepias tuberosa L. (Butter- USP 1820-90

fly weed, Pleurisy-Root) NF IV-V

Orchis probably Orchis spectabilis L., never official

possibly Leptoorchis liliifolia

(L.) Kuntze

Centaurium Luteum (Ground-Pine) probably Lycopodium complanatum L.
USP 1860-XII

or L. clavatum L. (L. clavatum)

Elichrysum (Cottonweed, Life-everlasting) probably Anaphalis margaritacum
L.; never official

cultivated as a drug plant

Lobelia most likely Lobelia syphlitica never official

the closely-related L. inflata: USP 1820-

X, NF VI-VII

[Unnamed shrub with red roots] most likely Ceanothus americanus,
never official

Jersey tea or Red root; cultivated as a

drug plant

Veronica Spicata Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver’s root) USP 1860-1900,


NF IV-VII

Eupatorium Folium Perfoliatum Eupatorium perfoliatum USP 1820-1900,


NF IV-VII

Appendix to Thomas Short’s Medicina Britanica: or a Treatise on such
Physical Plants as are Generally to be found in Fields or Gardens in Great-Britain,
3rd edition, London.



Printed: Philadelphia Re-printed, and sold by B. Franklin, and D. Hall,
at the Post-Office in Market-street 1751.



With a preface by Mr. John Bartram, Botanist of Pennsylvania, and his Notes
throughout the Work, shewing the places where may of the described Plants
are to be found in these Parts of America, their Differences in Name, Appearance
and Virtue, from those of the same Kind in Europe; and an Appendix, containing
a Description of a Number of Plants peculiar to America, their Uses, Virtues,
&c.



Mr. Bartram’s Appendix:



Containing Descriptions, Virtues and Uses, of sundry Plants of these Northern
Parts of America; and particularly of the newley discovered Indian Cure
for the Venereal Disease.



Aralia, called by some Spikenard, by others Wild Liquorice; this bears large
Clusters of Berries, ripe in September, which are pleasant and wholesome
to eat: The Roots are of a balsamick Nature; the black Inhabitants use them
to cure fresh Wounds; they bruise the Roots, then pour a little Spring Water
to them, mixing them together, which brings the Mass to a mucilaginous Balsam,
which they apply with good Success; the Roots chewed, and the Juice swallowed,
help the Pains of the Loins.



Aralia Caule Nudo, commonly called Sarsaparilla, hath a long creeping Root,
something like the Spanish, but is really a very different Plant, yet of
great Virtue. The Decoction daily drank as Diet-drink, is much commended
for cleansing the Blood, and curing a Dropsy; and outwardly applied is extoll’d
for curing of the Shingles, and cleansing and healing of Ulcers.



Erigeron, used by some for the Bite of a Snake; it bears a white Flower
in the Spring, something like a large Daisy, about a Foot high, the Roots
run under the Surface of the Ground in small Fibres or Threads, of a hot
Taste: The Indians pound this Root, and apply it to cold hard Tumours to
disolve them.



Saururus. Some of the Dutch call it Aristolochia, I suppose, because the
Shape of the Leaf hath some Resemblance to that Plant. It grows in wet Places,
and produceth a long Spike of white Flowers; the Root is spungy like a Rush,
and runs near the Surface of the Mud.



It is of excellent Virtue; being made into a Poultice, and applied to sore
and imposthumated Breasts, it ripens and heals them. The dried Leaves made
into a Tea and drank, is commended for the Pains of the Breast and Back.




Collinsonia. This Plant grows five Feet high; hath, in the Fall, after Harvest,
a Smell something like Hops; the Seed is much like Sage Seed. This, in some
Parts of the Country, is called Horse Weed, not only because Horses are
very greedy of it, but it also is good for sore gall’d Backs. The Root is
hard and knobby, and is much commended for Womens After-pains, being pounded,
boiled and the Decoction drank.



Chelidonium, or Sanguinaria, called by the Country People, Red Root, or
Turmerick. The Leaves broken yield a yellow Juice, like the Garden Celandine;
the Flower is white, and opens early in the Spring; the Root dried and powdered
is commended by Dr. Colden, as a Cure for the Jaundice, the Powder being
given to the Weight of a Drachm in Small Beer; and by others, for the Bite
of a Rattle-Snake.



Virga-aurea, or that Species of Golden Rod, that is so famous for the Bite
of Rattle-Snake. This elegant Species hath slender purple Stalks, rising
a Foot high, with a Spike of fine yellow Flowers of near one third Part
of the Length of the Plant; the Flowers grow out of the Bosom of the Leaves,
three or four in little Tufts. This is extolled as a very effectual Cure
for the Bite of a Rattle-Snake; the Herb boiled, and the Decoction drank,
and the warm Herb applied to the Wound. It is used with good Success to
cure the Swelling of the Throat and Neck, and Pains of the Breast, it being
a powerful Dissolver of viscid Humours.



Jacea, called by some Throat-wort, because of its Virtue for the Cure of
Sore-Throats. The Roots are as big as a Hiccory Nut, with some small Fibres;the
Stalk is about four or five Feet high, without any Branches, with long narrow
Leaves growing alternately thereon; the Flowers put forth toward the Top,
surrounding the Stalk in a long Spike of purple Flowers.



The Root bruised and boiled in water, and the Decoction drank and gargled
in the Mouth, and the Root applied, with warm Cloths dipped in the hot Decoction,
to the Throat, gives Relief, it being of a warm discussing Nature.



Uvulary. It was formerly taken for a Species of Solomon’s Seal, having smooth
leaves like it; but the Stalk grows through the Leaf, and the little yellowish
Flowers something resemble a Lily; it grows about a Foot high, the Root
is white, and spreads like a Crow’s Foot; some People call it by that Name
for that Reason; it is good Root for gathering and breaking a Boil, and
makes a fine Salve for healing Wounds and Ulcers; it makes a fine maturating
Poultice.



Triosteospermum, called in our Northern Colonies Dr. Tinker’s Weed; in Pennsylvania,
Gentian; and to the Southward Fever Root, where it is used for the Fever
and Ague: With us it was used with good Success for the Pleurisy, and in
New-England, for a Vomit. It is a powerful Worker, a little churlish, yet
may be a noble Medicine in skilful Hands.



Blazing-Star, as it is called by the black Inhabitants, by others, Devil’s-bit,
both fanciful Names; the Leaves spread on the Ground, four or five from
one Root, and are three or four Inches long; and near one broad; in June
it shoots up a Stalk eighteen Inches long, with a fine Spike of white Flowers
six Inches long; it grows plentifully in the back Parts of the Country,
on dry rich Soil; the Root is white, and about as thick as a Pipe-shank,
and extremely bitter.



This precious Root is a great Resister of fermenting Poisons, and the grievous
Pains of Bowels, taken in Powder, or the Root bruised and steeped in Rum,
of which take a Spoonful at once, and as often as Need requires, until the
Pains remit.



Star-Grass. This hath some Resemblance to the last, but the Leaves are narrower
and more pointed, and in Winter more yellow, and this grows in moist Places,
amongst Hurtleberries, very plentiful in Jersey, and some low Grounds in
Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Decoction of this Root drank, easeth the
Pains of the Stomach and Bowels.



Liriodendrum, commonly called Poplar. The Bark of the Root steeped in Rum,
and the Rum drank, is much commended for the Cure of the Fever and Ague;
and to the Northward, for the Gout and Rheumatism.



Apocinum. From the Roots that run deep in the Ground, arise several hairy
Stalks about two Feet high, with narrow long Leaves set alternately round
thereon; at the Top grow large Tufts of orange-coloured Flowers, which are
succeeded by long Pods, containing flat Seeds, joined to white Down, which
is by the Wind carried away when the Seed is ripe and bursts open; this
hath been for many Years used with good Success for the Cure of the Bloody
Flux; the Root must be powdered and given in a Spoonful of Rum, or rather
as the Indians give it, bruise the Root, and boil it in Water, and drink
the Decoction: Peter Kalm saith it is excellent for the hysteric Passion.




Orchis. It hath a Root as big as an Onion, it hath one or two Leaves green
all Winter, which are six or seven Inches long, and two broad, striped with
white Lines from one End to the other. This Root bruised and applied to
the Ears, easeth the Pains thereof, and helps to break Boils.



Centuarium Luteum, commonly called Ground-Pine. It grows about a Span high,
its slender Branches spread all round from one small fibrous Root, like
our Penny-royal, but as small as Wire, or the Leaves of Pine, from which
it had its Name; the little Flowers are yellow, succeeded by little red
pods on the Tops of the Branches; it smells as strong as the Leaves of Pine;
it commonly grows on old poor Clay Ground; it is of excellent Virtue, being
made into an Ointment with Penny-royal, Hemlock and Henbane (or it may do
alone made into an Ointment) for Bruises and Strains, if it be green, for
it loseth much of its Virtue when dry, it being of an active penetrating
Nature.



Elichrysum, called also Cottonweed, or Life-everlasting, is very good for
Baths or Fomentations for cold Tumors, Bruises or Strains; it may be mixed
with Ground-Pine.



Lobelia. This curious Plant riseth from a fibrous Root to three or four
Feet high, with a Spike of blue Flowers surrounding the Stalk for near a
Foot in Length: It grows in rich shady Ground; it is a scarce Plant in many
Parts of the country. The learned Peter Kalm (who gained the Knowledge of
it from Colonel Johnson, who learned it of the Indians, who, after great
Rewards bestowed on several of them, revealed the Secret to him) saith,
That the Roots of this Plant cureth the Pox much more perfectly and easily
than any mercurial Preparations, and is generally used by the Canada Indians,
for the Cure of themselves and the French that trade amongst them, tho’
deeply infected with it. They take a Handful of the Roots, and boil them
in a Quart of Water, and drink the Decoction, beginning with Half a Pint
at first, if the Patient be weak, then increase the Dose every Day as he
can bear its purging; but if he can’t bear it every Day, let him omit it
a Day or two, then take to it again, as he finds Occasion, until he is cured:
They wash the Ulcer with the Decoction; but if it be deep and rotten, they
put some powder of the inner Bark of the Spruce-tree into it, which helps
to dry it up; but if the Disease is inveterate, they drink the Decoction
of Ranunculus Folio Reniformus. An old Sachem told Colonel Johnson of another
Shrub, with a red Root, from which proceeds several slender Branches, eighteen
Inches or two Feet long, on which grow Spikes of white Flowers, which produce
three-square black Seed-Pods; the Leaves some of our People drink as Tea,
and some smoak it with Tobacco; the Roots of this, bruised and Boiled, and
the Decoction drank, the Sachem said, he rather preferred to the Lobelia;
but the Lobelia seems to be of the most general Use, and with extraordinary
Success.



More particular Directions how to use the Lobelia-Root for the Venereal
Disorder, obtained from the Indians, by Col. J. “After making a decoction
of it, the Patient is to drink about two Gills of it very early in the Morning,
fasting, the same before Dinner, and Bed-time. Add or diminish as you find
it agrees with the Patient’s Constitution: The third Day begin Bathing,
and continue it twice a Day, until the Sores are well cleansed, and partly
healed, then use the Lotion but once a Day till quite well; observing all
the Time to use a slender Diet (vegetable Food, and small Drink) as in other
Courses of Physick, a Salivation excepted. These are the Directions I have
had from the Person who gave me the Secret.”



Veronica Spicata. This Plant, from a fibrous Root, raiseth two or three
Stalks from three to five Feet high, with three or four Leaves set at one
Joint (if they are set across) with a long Spike of white Flowers on the
Top of each Stalk.



One Handful of the Roots of this Plant, boiled in a Pint of Milk, and drank,
is used by the black Inhabitants for a powerful Vomit.



Eupatorium Folium Perfoliatum. This Plant grows in moist Places; the Stalks
grow (through the Leaves, which are rough and pointed) two or three Feet
high, branching out towards the Top, producing a large Bunch of white Flowers,
which are succeeded by fine Down, which bloweth away with the Seed.



This Herb boiled in Water and the Decoction drank, is commended for a Vomit
in the intermitting Fevers, and used as a Fomentation for Pains in the Limbs.




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Formerly published in Pharmacy in History


1. Gifford, G.E. “Botanic Remedies in Colonial Massachusetts, 1620-1820,”
Medicine in Colonial Massachusetts, 1620-1820, p. 263.

2. Dodoens, R. A New Herball, or Historie of Plants (London, 1586).

3. Gerard, J. & T. Johnson (ed.). The Herbal or General History of Plants
(New York, 1975 [1633]).

4. Parkinson, J. Theatrum Botanicum: The Theater of Plants (London, 1640).


5. Culpeper, N. The Complete Herbal. (London, 1847).

6. Leighton, A. Early American Gardens (Boston, 1970), p. 139.

7. Sonnedecker, G. Kremers and Urdang’s History of PHarmacy, 4th ed. (Philadelphia,
1976).

8. Cowen, D. Pre-Pharmacopoeial Literature Madison, AIHP, 1961.

9. Duncan, A. The Edinburgh New Dispensatory, from the 8th edition, with
Large Additions, relating principally to the vegetable production of the
United States by J. Dyckman (New York, 1818).

10. Seward, B.P. “Pioneer Medicine in VIrginia,” Annals of Medical
History xx, xx.

11. Blanton, W.B. Medicine in Virginia in the Seventeeth Century (Richmond,
1930).

12. Gifford, Botanic Remedies.

13. Blanton, W.B. Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century (Richmond,
1931).

14. Such as John German’s American Almanac.

15. Austin, R.B. American Medical Imprints (Washington, 1961).

16. Sonnedecker.

17. Cowan, D. “The Impact of the Materia Medica of the North American
Indians on Professional Practice,” in W.-H. Hein (ed.) Botanical Drugs
of the Americas in the Old and New Worlds, Verffentlichungen der Internationalen
Gesellschaft f¸r Geschichte der Pharmazie, NF Band 53.

18. Vogel, American Indian Medicine (Norman, 1970).

19. Hobbs, C. Echinacea Handbook (Capitola, CA, 1990).

20. Densmore, F. “Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians,” Ann.
Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 44 (1928) 275-398.

21. Hoffman, W.J. “The Midewiwin or ‘Grand Medicine Society,'”
Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 7 (1891) 143-300.

22. Mooney, J. “The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees.” Ann. Rep.
Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 7 (1891) 301-397.

23. Smith, H.H. “Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians.” Bull. Pub.
Mus. City of Milwaukee 4 (1923) 1-174.

24. Cowen, The Impact..

25. Hobbs, C. “Golden Seal in Early American Medical Botany.”
Pharmacy in History 32 (1990) 79.

26. Barton, B.S. Collections for an Essay Towards a Materia Medica of the
United States (Philadelphia, 1810).

27. Earnest, E. John and William Bartram (Philadelphia, 1940).

28. Bartram, W. John Bartram, 1699-1777, His Garden and his House. (Philadelphia,
1938).

29. Gillispie, C.C. (ed.) The Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York,
1972).

30. Earnest.

31. Darlington, W. Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall (New York,
1967 [1849]).

32. Gordon, M.B. Aesclepias Comes to the Colonies (Ventnor, NJ, 1949).

33. Youmans, W.J. Pioneers of Science (New York, 1896 [1896]), 24-39.

34. Bartram, W. The Travels of William Bartram (New York, 1928 [1791]).


35. Earnest.

36. Guerra, F. American Medical Bibliography 1639-1783 (New York, 1962).


37. Austin.

38. Fernald, M.L. Gray’s Manual of Botany (New York, 1970).

39. Britton, N.L. & Hon. A. Brown. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern
United States, Canada and the British Possessions (New York, 1898).

40. Bailey, L.H. & Staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. Hortus Third
(New York, 1975).

41. Hocking, G.M. A Dictionary of Terms in PHarmacognosy (Springfiled, 1955).


42. Uphof, J.C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants (New York, 1959).

43. Young, C. J.M. Nickell’s Botanical Ready Reference (Palo Alto, 1978).


44. Hobbs, C.E. 1876. C.E. Hobbs’ Botanical Hand-Book. Boston: Chas. C.
Roberts.

45. Barton, Collections.

46. Gathercoal, E.N. & H.W. Youngken. Check List of Native and Introduced
Drug Plants in the United States (Chicago, 1942).

47. The original USP’s and NF’s, all of which are in the Institute for Natural
Products Library, were consulted. The Medical Botany of John Bartram (Draft
ver. 1.0) C. Hobbs 7/17/91 10

Christopher Hobbs LAc AHG Written by Christopher Hobbs LAc AHG

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