What is Yoga?

All people wish to be happy. This seemingly simple desire appears to elude the best-intentioned efforts of even the most intelligent among us. Yet almost everyone has had glimpses of deep peacefulness when they have felt connected both to themselves, to others, and to nature. Curiously, the state of feeling good and whole does not seem to be something we can order up on demand but rather appears to happen spontaneously.


In such moments we experience a sense of translucence such that that which we see, feel, sense, hear, or touch no longer feels separate from us but is experienced as a part of our own totality. When our hand resting over the heart of the beloved merges and becomes one with his or her body, when we become the same midnight sky that fills us with awe, we remember, however briefly, our place in the scheme of things. These brief flickers of remembrance imbue our vision with freshness and innocence so that we can see things as they truly are.


Because these moments of lucidity are so blissful, we wish that they may become
the base state of our lives rather than the brief and oftentimes tenuous
experience to which such happiness is usually assigned. These moments of clarity
have nothing to do with the caricatures of happiness presented to us through the
media or popular culture. These moments have always been there. The beloved’s
heartbeat and the sky have always been there. These moments are simply awaiting
our arrival.



Yoga is a technology for arriving in this present
moment. It is a means of waking up from our spiritual amnesia, so that we can
remember all that we already know. It is a way of remembering our true
nature, which is essentially joyful and peaceful. Developed as a pragmatic
science by ancient seers centuries ago, yoga is a
practice that any person, regardless of age, sex, race, or
religious belief, can use to realize her full potential. It is a means of
staying in intimate communication with the formative core matrix of yourself and
those forces that serve to bind all living beings together. As you establish and
sustain this intimate connection, this state of equanimity becomes the core of
your experience rather than the rare exception.



Through observing nature and through intense
self-observation and inquiry, the ancient yogis were able to codify the
conditions that must be present for realizing our intrinsic wholeness. Although
such realization can occur spontaneously, more often than not it is the result
of a sustained commitment to practice over a lifetime. This is not to imply that
yoga is a goal which we strive toward, or that there is some kind of
chronological progression toward “self-improvement.” Rather, it is the
recognition that each individual can achieve understanding only through his own
exploration and discovery, and that all of life is a continual process of
refinement which allows us to see more clearly. When we clean the windshield of
our car, we suddenly see the road ahead as bright and defined. The road, the
image before us, is exactly as it was before we cleaned the window. The trees
are the same green, the sky the same vivid blue, and the markers just as
defined, only now we see what is there. We start to be able to see the potholes
in the road ahead and to avoid them. We start to remember such dangerous roads
and steer our way clear to safer routes in the future.


In the same way, yoga is
not about self-improvement or making ourselves better. It is a process of
deconstructing all the barriers we may have erected that prevent us from having
an authentic connection with ourselves and with the world. This tenet is an
extremely important one because the effort to change and improve ourselves is
fraught with the risk of subtle self-aggression that only produces more
unhappiness. We cannot strive toward something that we already are.



Nonetheless, there is work to be done. And this work is not about following a formula, or strictly adhering to rules, because yoga is not a paint-by-numbers affair. Nor does yoga require blind faith in an outside authority or dogma. Nor is it a religion, although the practice of its central precepts inevitably draws each individual to the direct experience of those truths on which religion rests. Rather, yoga is a way of living and being that makes real happiness possible. Yoga is also a science that incorporates a broad range of practices and techniques that can be tailored and adapted, to best suit your personal constitution and personality. We are not asked to believe anything until we have experimented, tested, and found our direct experience to be sound.


The great paradox of this “work” is that there is no reward to strive toward, because the practice is the reward. In the very moment you focus your attention by coming back into your body, your breath, and your immediate sensate reality, you will experience a deep sense of vibrant
stillness. This feeling is so pleasurable, so joyful and revitalizing that you will be drawn toward lifestyle choices that nourish your
well-being. This work is not about forcing yourself to give up anything, because that which is no longer nourishing to you will gradually drop away effortlessly. There is no waiting and no delayed gratification because yoga is both the means and the result, and the seed of all that is possible is present at the very beginning. This experience of stillness is possible in the first ten minutes of your first yoga class. It is possible in this very breath. Sadly, if we approach and practice yoga with the same cultural dictum of striving and effort, force and self-coercion that we may have applied to other aspects of our lives, we may practice diligently for decades while never allowing our self to appreciate the simple truth of its own wholeness.


Although there are many branches to the tree of yoga, from devotional methods to more intellectual approaches, from schools that
emphasize service toward others to those that focus on physical purification,
Patanja Sutras, clearly defines an eight-limbed path (ashtanga) that
forms the structural framework for whatever emphasis upon which an individual
wishes to concentrate. The Yoga Sutras, or “threads,” consist of four books
produced sometime in the third century before Christ. Such was the clarity of
Patanjali’s vision of wholeness that he consolidated the entirety of yoga
philosophy in a series of 196 lucid aphorisms. Each thread of the Yoga Sutras is
revealed as a part of a woven fabric, with
each aphorism merely a mark or color within the whole
pattern. The threads, however, begin to make sense only through a direct
experience of their meaning. This is not a linear process but rather an organic
one in which colors and markings gradually become more clear until a pattern
forms. And this pattern that Patanjali weaves for us is a description of the
process of unbinding our limited ideas about ourselves and becoming free.


The eight limbs of yoga are traditionally
presented as a hierarchical progression, but this linear progression toward an
idealized goal tends only to reinforce the dualistic idea that yoga is something
to “get.” It may be more helpful to imagine the eight limbs as the arms and legs
of a body–connected to one another through the central body of yoga just as a
child’s limbs grow in proportion to one another, whatever limb of practice we
focus upon inevitably causes the other limbs to grow as well. People who begin
yoga through the limb of meditation are often later
drawn to practice more physical postures. Those who are drawn to vigorous physical practice later find themselves being drawn into the quieter, more meditative practices just as each limb is essential for the optimal functioning of your body, every limb of yoga practice is important. Growth in practice happens naturally when a person is sincere in her wish to grow.



The eight limbs emanating from a central core
consist of the following:


Yamas and Niyamas: Ten ethical precepts that allow us to be at peace with ourselves, our family, and our community.



Asanas:
Dynarmic internal dances in the form of postures. These help to keep the body strong, flexible, and relaxed. Their practice strengthens the nervous system and refines our process of inner perception.



Pranayama:
Roughly defined as breathing practices, and more
specifically defined as practices that help us to develop constancy in the
movement of prana, or life force.


Pratyahara:
The drawing of one’s attention
toward silence rather than toward things.


Dharana:
Focusing attention and
cultivating inner perceptual awareness.


Dhyana:
Sustaining awareness under all
conditions.


Samadhi:
The return of the mind into
original silence.


The greater part of this book on yoga will focus
on the most down-to-earth practices–the asanas and the practices of
breathing and meditation. These form an embodied approach to spiritual practice,
where we use the body and all our sensual capacities in the service of
regeneration and transformation. This is contrasted to many approaches in which
the body is seen as an obstacle that must be transcended. Let us first look at
the core principles for living, the yamas and niyamas
that form the central vein from which all other yoga
practices spring.



The Ten Living Principles

The first limb, or the yamas, consists of
characteristics observed and codified by wise people since the beginning of time
as being central to any life lived in freedom.
They are mostly concerned with how we use our energy in
relationship to others and in a subtler sense,
our relationship to ourselves. The sages recognized that stealing from your
neighbor was likely to promote discord, lying to your wife would cause
suffering, and violence begets more violence; the results are hardly conducive
to living a peaceful life. The second limb, the niyamas, constitutes a
code for living in a way that fosters the soulfulness of the individual and has
to do with the choices we make. The yamas and niyamas are emphatic
descriptions of what we are when we are connected to our source. Rather
than a list of dos and don’ts, they tell us that our
fundamental nature is compassionate, generous, honest, and,
peaceful.


In the West we are taught from an early age that
what we do and what we own sole components for
measuring whether we are “successful.” We measure
our success and that of others through this limited vantage
point, judging and dismissing anything that falls outside these narrow
parameters. What yoga teaches us is that who we are and how we are
constitute the ultimate proof of a life lived in freedom. If you do not truly
believe this, it is likely that you will measure success in
your yoga practice through the achievement of external
forms. This tendency has produced a whole subculture of yoga in the West that is
nothing more than sophisticated calisthenics, with those who can bend the
farthest or do the most extraordinary yoga postures being deemed masters.
Because it’s easy to measure physical prowess, we may compare ourselves to
others who are more flexible, or more “advanced” in their yoga postures, getting
trapped in the belief that the forms of the practice are the goal. These outward
feats do not necessarily constitute any evidence of a balanced practice or a
balanced life. What these first central precepts the yamas and niyamas
ask us to remember is that the techniques and forms are not goals in
themselves but vehicles for getting to the essence of who we are.


One of our greatest challenges as Westerners
practicing yoga is to learn to perceive progress through “invisible” signs,
signs that are quite often unacknowledged by the culture at large. Are we moving
toward greater kindness, patience, or tolerance toward others? Are we able to
remain calm and centered even when others around us become agitated and angry?
How we speak, how we treat others, and how we
live are more subjective qualities and attributes we need to learn to recognize
in ourselves as a testament to our own progress and as gauges of authenticity in
our potential teachers. When we remain committed to our most deeply held values
we can begin to discern the difference between the appearance of
achievement and the true experience of transformation, and thereby free
ourselves to pursue those things of real value.


As you read through the precepts that follow, take
the time to dwell upon their relevance to your life and to consider your own
personal experiences both past and present in reference to them. You can take
almost any situation that arises in your life and consider it from the vantage
point of one or more of these precepts. It can also be valuable consciously to
choose a precept that you’d like to explore in depth
for a month or even a year at a time investigating how the
precept works in all aspects of your life. And last, the way in which you
approach the practices that follow in this book, and your underlying intentions,
will ultimately determine whether your practice bears fruit. As you progress in
your yoga practice, take the time to pause frequently and ask “Who am I becoming
through this practice? Am I becoming the kind of person I would like to have as
a friend?”




Yamas
–Wise
Characteristics


Ahimsa–Compassion for All Living
Things

Ahimsa
is usually translated as nonviolence, but this precept
goes far and beyond the limited penal sense of not killing others. First and
foremost we have to learn how to be nonviolent toward ourselves. If we were able
to play back the often unkind, unhelpful, and destructive comments and judgments
silently made toward our self in any given day, this may give us some idea of
the enormity of the challenge of self-acceptance. If we were to speak these
thoughts out loud to another person, we would realize how truly devastating
violence to the self can be. In truth, few of
us would dare to be as unkind to others as we are to ourselves. This can be as
subtle as the criticism of our body when we look in the mirror in the morning,
or when we denigrate our best efforts. Any thought, word, or action that
prevents us (or someone else) from growing and living freely is one that is
harmful.


Extending this compassion to all living creatures
is dependent on our recognition of the underlying unity of all sentient beings.
When we begin to recognize that the streams
and rivers of the earth are no different from the blood coursing through our
arteries, it becomes difficult to remain indifferent to the plight of the world.
We naturally find ourselves wanting to protect all living things. It becomes
difficult to toss a can into a stream or carve our names in the bark of a tree,
for each act would be an act of violence toward ourselves as well.
Cultivating an attitude and mode of behavior of
harmlessness does not mean that we no longer
feel strong emotions such as anger, jealously, or hatred. Learning to see
everything through the eyes of compassion demands that we look at even these
aspects of our self with acceptance. Paradoxically, when we welcome our feelings
of anger, jealousy, or rage rather than see them as signs of our spiritual
failure, we can begin to understand the root causes of these feelings and move
beyond them. By getting close enough to our
own violent tendencies we can begin to understand the root causes of them and
learn to contain these energies for our own well-being and for the protection of
others. Underneath these feelings we discover a much stronger desire that we all
share–to be loved. It is impossible to come to this deeper understanding if we
bypass the tough work of facing our inner demons.


In considering ahimsa it’s helpful to ask,
Are my thoughts, actions, and deeds fostering the growth and well-being of all
beings?


Satya–Commitment to the
Truth
This precept is based on the
understanding that honest communication and action form the bedrock of any
healthy relationship, community, or government, and that deliberate deception,
exaggerations, and mistruths harm others. One of the best
ways we can develop this capacity is to practice right
speech. This means that when we say something, we are sure of its truth. If we
were to follow this precept with commitment, many of us would have a great deal
less to say each day! A large part of our everyday comments and conversations
are not based upon what we know to be true but are based on our imagination,
suppositions, erroneous conclusions, and sometimes out-and-out exaggerations.
Gossip is probably the worst form of this miscommunication.


Commitment to the truth isn’t always easy, but
with practice, it’s a great deal less complicated and ultimately less painful
than avoidance and self-deception.


Proper communication allows us to deal with
immediate concerns taking care of little matters before they become big
ones.


Probably the hardest form of this practice is
being true to our own heart and inner destiny. Confusion and mistrust of our
inner values can make it difficult to know the nature of our heart’s desire, but
even when we become clear enough to recognize
what truth means for us, we may lack the courage and conviction to live our
truth. Following what we know to be essential for our growth may mean leaving
unhealthy relationships or jobs and taking risks that jeopardize our own
comfortable position. It may mean making choices that are not supported
by consensual reality or ratified by the outer
culture. The truth is rarely convenient. One way we can know we are living the
truth is that while our choices may not be easy, at the end of the day we feel
at peace with ourselves.


Asteya–Not Stealing

Asteya arises out of the understanding that all
misappropriation is an expression of a feeling of lack. And this feeling of lack
usually comes from a belief that our happiness is contingent on external
circumstances and material possessions. Within
Western industrialized countries satisfaction can be
contingent upon so many improbable conditions and terms that it is not uncommon
to spend all of one’s time hoping for some better life, and imagining that
others (who possess what we do not) have that better life. In constantly looking
outside of ourselves for satisfaction, we are less able to appreciate the
abundance that already exists. That is what
really matters–our health and the riches of our inner life
and the joy and love we are able to give and receive from others. It becomes
difficult to appreciate that we have hot running water when all we can think
about is whether our towels are color-coordinated. How can we appreciate our
good fortune in having enough food to eat when we wish we could afford to eat
out more often?


The practice of asteya asks us to be
careful not to take anything that has not been freely given. This can be as
subtle as inquiring whether someone is free to speak with us on the phone before
we launch into a tirade about our problems. Or reserving our questions after a
class for another time, rather than hoarding a teacher’s attention long after
the official class time has ended. In taking someone’s time that may not have
been freely given, we are, in effect, stealing. The paradox of practicing
asteya is that when we relate to others from the vantage
point of abundance rather than neediness, we find that others are more generous
with us and that life’s real treasures begin to flow our way.


This may seem unlikely, so let me share an
example. Paul was a medical student and past acquaintance who seemed always to
be helping others and sharing his seemingly limited resources. One evening when
it became too late for a commute home, I offered Paul my guest room for the
night. On awakening in the morning I discovered he had cleaned my refrigerator
(“It looked like you’d been busy”). Paul had few financial resources but always
seemed to be having wonderful dinner feasts to share with his friends. Later, I
found out that he worked late at a local health-food restaurant, and, thankful
for the extra hours Paul spent helping out, the owner gave him many of the
leftover vegetables, breads, and prepared dishes to take home. When a number of
friends joined Paul at a holiday home for a week, Paul initiated a special
“clean-up and dust” party that lasted all day (“Just think how great it will be
for the owner when he comes back after his trip overseas . . !”). Paul rarely
asked for anything but was always surprising his friends with his new
acquisitions. People gave things to Paul all
the time–even large items like cars and washing machines–not because they felt
sorry for him but because his own sense of intrinsic abundance and his own
generosity tended to make you feel that, like him, you had a lot to give.


Not stealing demands that we cultivate a certain
level of self-sufficiency so that we do not
demand more of others, our family, or our community than we need. It means that
we don’t take any more than we need, because that would be taking from others. A
helpful way of practicing asteya when you find yourself dwelling on the
“not enoughs” of your life is to ask: “How is this attitude preventing me from
enjoying the things I already have?” Another way of fostering this sense of
abundance is to take a moment before going to sleep to dwell on at least one
gift in your life. This can be as simple as the gift of having a loving partner
or loyal pet, the grace of having good health, or the pleasure of having a
garden.


Brahmacharya–Merging with the
One
Of all the precepts, the call
to brahmacharya is the least understood and the most
feared by Westerners. Commonly translated as celibacy, this
precept wreaks havoc in the minds and lives of
those who interpret brahmacharya as a necessary act of sexual suppression
or sublimation. All spiritual traditions and religions have wrestled with the
dilemma of how to use sexual energy wisely. Practicing brahmacharya means
that we use our sexual energy to regenerate our connection to our spiritual
self. It also means that we don’t use this energy in any way that might harm
another. It doesn’t take a genius to recognize that manipulating and using
others sexually creates a host of bad feelings, with the top contenders being
pain, jealousy, attachment, resentment, and blinding hatred. This is one realm
of human experience that is guaranteed to bring out the best and worst in
people, so the ancient Yogis went to great lengths to observe and experiment
with this particular form of energy. It may be easier to understand
brahmacharya if we remove the sexual designation and look at it purely as
energy. Brahmacharya means merging one’s energy with God. While the
communion we may experience through making love with
another gives us one of the clearest experiences of this
meshing of energies, this experience is meant to be extended beyond discrete
events into a way of life–a kind of omnidimensional celebration of Eros in all
its forms. Whether we achieve this through feeling our breath as it caresses our
lungs, through orgasm, or through celibacy is
not important.


Given the pragmatism of the ancient yogis, it is
hard to believe that Patanjali would have put forth a precept that would be so
undeniably unsuccessful as selfwined denial. The fall from grace of countless
gurus who, while admonishing their devotees to practice celibacy, have wantonly
misused their own sexual power gives cause to consider more deeply the
appropriateness of such an interpretation. When any energy is sublimated or
suppressed, it has the tendency to backfire, expressing itself in life-negating
ways. This is not to say that celibacy in and of itself is an unsound practice.
When embraced joyfully the containment of sexual energy can be enormously
self-nourishing and vitalizing and, at the very least, can provide an
opportunity to learn how to use this energy wisely. When celibacy is practiced
in this way, there is no sense of stopping
oneself from doing or having what one really wants. Ultimately it is not a
matter of whether we use our sexual energy but how we use
it.


In looking at your own relationship to sexual
energy, consider whether the ways you express that energy bring you closer to or
farther away from your spiritual self.


Aparigraha–Not
Grasping

Holding on to things and
being free are two mutually exclusive states. The ordinary mind is constantly
manipulating reality to get ground underneath it, building more and more
concretized images of how things are and how others are, as a way of generating
confidence and security. We build self-images and construct concepts and
paradigms that feed our sense of certainty, and we then defend this edifice by
bending every situation to reinforce our certainty. This would be fine if life
were indeed a homogeneous event in which nothing ever changed; but life does
change, and it demands that we adapt and change with it. The resistance to
change, and tenaciously holding on to things, causes great suffering and
prevents us from growing and living life in a more vital and pleasurable way.
What yoga philosophy and all the great
Buddhist teachings tells us is that solidity is a creation of the ordinary mind
and that there never was anything permanent to begin with that we could hold on
to. Life would be much easier and substantially less painful if we lived with
the knowledge of impermanence as the only constant. As we all have discovered at
some time in our lives, whenever we have tried to hold on too tightly to
anything, whether it be possessiveness of our partner or our youthful identity,
this has only led to the destruction of those very things we most value. Our
best security lies in taking down our fences and barricades and allowing
ourselves to grow, and through that growth
becoming stronger and yet more resilient.


The practice of aparigraha also requires
that we look at the way we use things to reinforce our sense of identity. The
executive ego loves to believe in its own power but unfortunately requires a
retinue of foot soldiers in the way of external objects such as the right
clothes, car, house, job, or image to maintain this illusion. Because this
executive ego is but an illusion created by our sense of separateness, it
requires ever greater and more elaborate strategies to keep it clothed. Although
the practice of not grasping may first begin as consciously withdrawing our hand
from reaching for external things, eventually the need to reach outward at all
diminishes until there is a recognition that
that which is essential to us is already at hand.





Niyamas

-Codes for Living Soulfully

Shaucha–Purity

Shaucha,
or
living purely, involves maintaining a cleanliness in body, mind, and
environment so that we can experience ourselves at a higher resolution. The word
pure comes from the Latin purus, which means clean and unadulterated.
When we take in healthy food, untainted by pesticides and unnatural additives,
the body starts to function more smoothly. When we read books that elevate our
consciousness, see movies that inspire, and
associate with gentle people, we are feeding the mind in a way that nourishes
our own peacefulness. Creating a home environment that is elegant, simple, and
uncluttered generates an atmosphere where we are not constantly distracted by
the paraphernalia of yesterday’s projects and last year’s knickknacks.
Shaucha is a testament to the positive power of association.


Practicing shaucha, meaning “that and
nothing else,” involves making choices about what you want and don’t want in
your life. Far from self-deprivation or dry piety, the practice of shaucha
allows you to experience life more vividly. A clean
plate enjoys the sweetness of an apple and the taste of
pure water; a clear mind can appreciate the
beauty of poetry and the wisdom imparted in a story; a polished table reveals
the deep grain of the wood. This practice both generates beauty and allows us to
appreciate it in all its many forms.



Santosha–Contentment

Santosha,
or the
practice of contentment, is the ability to feel satisfied within
the container of one’s immediate experience. Contentment shouldn’t be confused
with happiness, for we can be in difficult, even painful circumstances and still
find some semblance of contentment if we are able to see things as they are
without the conflictual pull of our expectations. Contentment also should not be
confused with complacency, in which we allow ourselves to stagnate in our
growth. Rather it is a sign that we are at
peace with whatever stage of growth we are in and the circumstances we find
ourselves in. This doesn’t mean that we accept or tolerate
unhealthy relationships or working conditions. But it may
mean that we practice patience and attempt to live as best we can within our
situation until we are able to better our conditions.


Contentment not only implies acceptance of the
present but tends to generate the capacity for hopefulness. This may seem
contradictory but is not. When you are equanimous within any situation, this
strengthens your faith that there is the possibility of living even more fully.
This possibility is not held out as something to
look forward to, nor does it have the negative effect of
making you feel dissatisfied until those hopes are gratified. Rather, the
ability to sustain one’s spirits even in dire
situations, is proof that a central sense of balance is rarely contingent on
circumstances. And, sustaining hopefulness, even when there are few signs that
things win improve, is one very good way of
fostering contentment.


Tapas–Burning
Enthusiasm

Literally translated as
“fire” or “heat,” tapas is the disciplined use of our energy. Because the
word discipline has the negative connotation of self-coercion, I take the
liberty here of translating this central precept as “burning enthusiasm.” When
we can generate an attitude of burning ardor, the strength of our convictions
generates a momentum that carries us forward.
We all know how even a seemingly boring or unpleasant task like cleaning the
house can be transformed when we work with
vigor and impulsion. Suddenly cleaning the toilet becomes
fun, hauling heavy loads invigorating, and
dusting the furniture absorbing. Tapas is a way of directing
our energy. Like a focused beam of light cutting through
the dark, tapas keeps us on track so that we don’t waste our time and
energy on superfluous or trivial matters. When this energy is strong, so also
are the processes of transmutation and
metamorphism.


We are not all equally possessed of the
disciplined energy of tapas. Some people need to work more earnestly to
kindle the flames of tapas, and it is at these times that it is helpful
to have a kind of parental consciousness coupled with a good sense of humor. Our
actions are then guided by a part of the self that knows what’s good for it,
which is aided by the ability to laugh in the face of one’s neuroses, lethargy,
or addictions. Even the laser minds among us have days when it takes a sheer act
of will to get out of bed, turn to our studies, or withdraw the hand that
reaches for a second slice of cake. If you have little enthusiasm yourself, it
can be enormously helpful to seek the company
of those who have this quality in abundance.
Attending a class with an inspiring teacher or practicing
yoga with a friend who has already established
a strong practice can help to stimulate tapas within yourself.
Once activated, however, the embers of tapas
tend to generate more and more heat and
momentum, which makes each subsequent effort less difficult. The analogy of
a fire is fitting for this precept. Once a
fire has completely died out it can take a great
deal of effort to start it up again. When you do get a fire
to light, the tentative embers must be fed at regular intervals or the fire dies
out again. But once the fire is roaring, it is easy to sustain.


For what greater purpose do we need tapas,
or discipline? Pema Chödrön, the Abbot of Gampo Abbey in Cape Breton, Nova
Scotia, and the author of many books on
Tibetan Buddhism, tells us that “what we discipline is not our ‘badness’ or our
‘wrongness.’ What we discipline is any form of potential escape from reality”
(italics added). When we’re not living in this disciplined awareness, our
willing tactics of avoidance create an endless cycle of more suffering for
ourselves. These avoidance tactics may temporarily placate our senses, but they
create a deep form of unhappiness. On some level we know we’re not being true to
ourselves or our potential. Discipline is having enough respect for yourself to
make choices that truly nourish your well-being and provide opportunities for
expansive growth. Far from being a kind of medicinal punishment, tapas
allows us to direct our energy toward a fulfilled life of meaning and one
that is exciting and pleasurable.


Swadhyaya–Self-Study
Any activity that cultivates self-reflective consciousness
can be considered swadhyaya. The soul tends to be lured by those
activities that will best illuminate it. Because people are so different in
their proclivities, one person may be drawn to write, while another will
discover herself through painting or athletics. Another person may come to know
himself through mastering an instrument, or through service at a hospice. Still
another may learn hidden aspects of herself through the practice of meditation.
The form that this self-study takes is inconsequential. Whatever the practice,
as long as there is an intention to know yourself through it, and the commitment
to see the process through, almost any activity can become an opportunity for learning about yourself. Swadhyaya
means staying with our process through thick and thin because it’s usually
when the going gets rough that we have the greatest opportunity to learn about
ourselves.


While self-study uncovers our strengths, authentic
swadhyaya also ruthlessly uncovers our
weakness, foibles, addictions, habit patterns, and negative tendencies. This
isn’t always the most cheering news. The worst thing we can do at these times is
give ourselves the double whammy of both uncovering a soft spot and beating
ourselves up for what we perceive as a fatal flaw. At these times, it’s
important actually to welcome and accept our limitations. When we welcome a
limitation, we can get close enough to
ourselves to see the roots of our anger, impatience, or self-loathing. We can
have a little compassion, for the forces and conditions that molded our
behaviors and beliefs, and in so doing develop more skill in handling,
containing, and redirecting previously self-destructive tendencies. The degree
to which we can do this for ourselves is the degree to which we will be tolerant
of other people’s weaknesses and flaws. Self-study is a big task.


Self-study also can become psychically incestuous
when the same self that may be confused and fragmented attempts to see itself.
This is why it can be so helpful (not to mention expedient) to secure the help
of a mentor, teacher, or close friend to support your self-study. If you’ve ever
said that someone “just doesn’t see himself” and watched him enact the same
self-destructive behaviors again and again, just consider how likely it is that
you too are blind to your own faults. A skillful mentor, and that can be anyone from a wise aunt to a
therapist to a bona fide guru, can find loving ways to help you see yourself as
you really are.


Ishvarapranidhana–Celebration of the
Spiritual

Life is not inherently
meaningful. We make meaning happen through the attention and care we
express through our actions. We make meaning happen when we set a table with
care, when we light a candle before practicing, or when we remove our shoes
before entering a temple. Yoga tells us that the spiritual suffuses everything
it is simply that we are too busy, too distracted, or too insensitive to notice
the extraordinary omnipresence that dwells in all things. So one of the first
ways that we can practice ishvarapranidhana
is by putting aside some time each day, even a few minutes, to avail ourselves of an intelligence larger than
our own. This might take the form of communing with your garden at dawn, taking
a few moments on the bus to breathe slowly and clear your mind, or engaging in a
more formal practice such as a daily reading, prayer, ritual, or meditation.
This practice requires that we have recognized that there is some omnipresent
force larger than ourselves that is guiding and directing the course of our
lives. We all have had the experience of looking back at some event in our life that at the time may
have seemed painful, confusing and disruptive, but later, in retrospect, made
perfect sense in the context of our personal destiny. We recognize that the
change that occurred during that time was
necessary for our growth, and that we are happier for it. The catch is that it’s
hard to see the bigger picture when you think you are the great controller
of your life. When you are the great
controller, you fail to recognize that supposed coincidences, accidents and
chance meetings all have some greater significance i the larger scheme of your
destiny. When you are the master of your universe, it’s hard to trust anything but your own self-made plans. When
we don’t have this recognition that there’s a bigger story going on, we get
caught up in our personal drama and a frustrating cycle of resistance to change.
Ishvarapranidhana asks us to go quietly, even when it’s not possible to see exactly where
things are headed. At first this can be
frightening, like being suspended in the air between one trapeze bar and
another, but, over time, this not knowing exactly how life is going to unfold
and the giving up of our frantic attempts to manipulate and control makes each
day an adventure. It makes our life a horse race right up until the very
finish!


Ultimately, ishvarapranidhana means
surrendering our personal will to this intelligence so we can fulfill our
destiny. The first step in this practice is attuning ourselves to perceive a
larger perspective. By setting aside enough time to get quiet and clear, we can
begin to differentiate between the cluttered thoughts of our ordinary mind and
the resonant intelligence that comes through as intuition. Rather than trying to
unravel the mystery, we start to embody the mystery of life. When we embody the
mystery, we begin to experience meaning. Where before we experienced numbness.
When we drink a glass of water, we taste it; when a cool breeze brushes our bare
skin, we feel it; and when a stranger speaks to us, we listen. Everything and
anything can become a sign of this intelligence.
Eventually we are spontaneously drawn to look at the
purpose of our life with a new eye. One starts to ask, How can my life be useful
to others? Living the insurance nor a
guarantee but it is neither spiritual rain against living a meaningless life, a
life that at its end we regret.



What Are Yoga Asanas and Why Practice Them?


Given the central importance of the yamas
and niyamas, one might wonder why it
would be necessary to practice the other limbs of yoga.
Would it not be enough to be compassionate, truthful, and content? Why would it
be important to take the time to stretch our
backs or to listen to our breath? If not for the tremendous importance of
grounding spirituality in the body, it’s unlikely that the great sages would
have listed asana practice as the second limb. This is why I have chosen
to focus in such detail on this dimension of
practice. What is asana practice all about?


The word asana is usually translated
as “pose” or “posture,” but its more literal
meaning is “comfortable seat.” Through their observations
of nature, the yogis discovered a vast repertoire of energetic expressions,
strong physical effect on the body but also a concomitant psychological effect.
Each movement demands that we hone some aspect of our consciousness and use
ourselves in a new way. The vast diversity of asanas is no accident, for
through exploring both familiar and unfamiliar
postures we are also expanding our consciousness, so that regardless of the
situation or form we find ourselves in, we can remain “comfortably seated” in
our center. Intrinsic to this practice is the uncompromising belief that every
aspect of the body is pervaded by consciousness. Asana practice is a way
to develop this interior awareness.


While a dancer’s or athlete’s internal impulses
result in movement that takes him into space, in asana practice our
internal impulses are contained inside the dynamic form of the posture. When you
witness a yoga practitioner skilled in this dynamic internal dance, you have the
sense that the body is in continuous subtle
motion. What distinguishes an asana from a stretch
or calisthenic exercise is that in
asana
practice we
focus our mind’s attention completely in the body so that we can
move as a unified whole and so we can perceive what
the body has to tell us. We don’t do something to the body, we become the
body. In the West we rarely do this. We
watch TV while we stretch; we read a book while we climb
the StairMaster; we think about our problems while we take a walk, all the time
living a short distance from the body. So asana practice is a reunion
between the usually separated body-mind.


Apart from the vibrant health, flexibility, and
stamina this unified body-mind brings us, living in the body is also an
integral aspect of spiritual practice. The most tangible way that we can know
what it means to be compassionate or not grasping is directly through the
cellular experience of the body. The most direct way that we can learn what it
means to let go is through the body. When we have a self-destructive
addiction–the impulse to overeat or to take drugs–this happens through the
entrenchment of neurological and physiological patterns in our bodies. And on a
more basic level, it’s hard to feel focused and purposeful when our bodies are
full of aches and pains or burdened with illness and disease.


While I have given the practice of asanas
great emphasis in this book, it is not because the perfection of the body or of
yoga postures is the goal of yoga practice. This down-to-earth, flesh-and-bones
practice is simply one of the most direct and expedient ways to meet yourself.
It is a good place to begin. Whether you meet yourself through standing on your
feet or standing on your head is irrelevant. It’s important, therefore, not to
make the mistake of thinking that the perfection of the
yoga asanas is the goal, or that you’ll be good at
yoga only once you’ve mastered the more difficult postures. The asanas
are useful maps to explore yourself, but they are not the territory. The
goal of asana practice is to live in your body and to learn to perceive
clearly through it. If you can master the Four Noble Acts, as I like to call
them, of sitting, standing, walking, and lying down with ease, you will have
mastered the basics of living an embodied spiritual life. This book gives you
the tools to do this and to go further if you wish.


The

emphasis on asana practice is also specific to the
age we live in, for we live in a time of
extreme dissociation from bodily experience. When we are not in our bodies we
are dissociated from our instincts, intuitions, feelings and insights, and
it becomes possible to dissociate ourselves
from other people’s feelings, and other
people’s suffering. The insidious ways in which we become
numb to our bodily experience and the feelings
and perceptions that arise from them leave us powerless to know who we are, what
we believe in, and what kind of world we wish to create. If we do not know when
we are breathing in and when we are breathing out, when we are unable to
perceive gross levels of tension, how then can we possibly know how to create a
balanced world? Every violent impulse begins in a body filled with tension;
every failure to reach out to someone in need begins in a body that has
forgotten how to feel. There has never been a back problem or a mental problem
that didn’t have a body attached to it. This limb of yoga practice reattaches us
to our body. In reattaching ourselves to our bodies we reattach ourselves to the
responsibility of living a life guided by the undeniable wisdom of our
body.


PRACTICING WITH JOYFULNESS


When we begin practice, we may feel far from happy
within ourselves. In fact, even the semblance of happiness may seem as remote to
us as winning the lottery. We may feel utterly confused, buried in
self-destructive habits, and encumbered by difficulties, whether emotional,
physical, or material, that appear insurmountable. Our bodies may feel as stiff
and knotted as an old tree, and our minds a jumble of worries and neuroses.
Platitudes about the peace and happiness available to us right now sound empty
in the face of our very real pain. Most of us begin like this, and even those
who feel some sense of inner balance often find that underneath the thin veneer
of appearances, there is much work to be done.


How do we go about doing this work without
becoming discouraged by the enormity of the task? Unless we can find a way to
practice with joyfulness, working with our difficulties rather than against,
them, practice will be an experience of
frustration and disappointment. Unless we can find a way to
enjoy what we are doing right now, yoga practice will become a negative time,
and ultimately we’ll develop a strong resistance even to stepping onto
the mat.


A story may help you to understand what I mean.
Many years ago I moved into a derelict house. The back door was nailed shut and
had not been opened for fifteen years; once pried open it revealed a six-foot
wall of seemingly impenetrable blackberry bushes, vines, and crabgrass. I wanted
a garden. For many months I looked in despair through the window of the back
door. The task seemed too large and. too difficult. Then I decided upon a
strategy that my mind could grasp. I decided that I would divide the project
into four-foot increments. Every week I would
clear a four-foot patch of garden. The backyard was sixty-five feet long! As I
would begin to dig and root, cutting and pulling my tiny patch, I resolved that
I would focus my attention only on the four-foot patch. I would not even look at
the other sixty-one feet of garden left to clear. Within minutes of beginning I
would become completely absorbed in the insects, the tiny plants uncovered, and
the pleasure of digging my hands into the brown earth. Each four-foot patch took
about three hours because the crabgrass had to be dug out completely and
the earth was rock hard. But three hours a
week was an easily manageable commitment. When I was finished with the patch, I
would step back and admire my good work, never allowing myself to consider the
chaotic mess left remaining. How wonderful it looked! Each four-foot patch was a
unique wonder. Pathways buried two feet under emerged. A lawn mower, enveloped
by grass (proof of the law of karma), was discovered. Not only was the task
challenging, it became an adventure, and I eagerly anticipated what I might find
each week. Within a year I had a beautiful lawn, an herb garden, and a patch of
flowers to enjoy. But, more important, I enjoyed the process of transforming an
inhospitable patch of ground into an urban paradise.


When you begin to practice, you may feel very
bound in your body and mind, not unlike the densely woven crabgrass of my
garden. You can choose to fight with yourself, pulling and tugging on yourself
as a way to force your own metamorphosis. If you’ve ever encountered a weed with
deep roots, you know the futility of pulling at the stem knowing full well some
digging is in order! There’s a moment when you
can cheerfully accept the task and set to it with full vigor, or turn sour and
miserable in the face of such work. There’s a moment when you can resign
yourself to the patient work ahead or give in to the impulse to pull on the stem
before the ground has been dug deep enough. The first step is accepting that
some deep work needs to be done and then deciding to make this a positive,
uplifting experience.


In yoga practice you can do this by dividing your
experience into incremental breaths and taking care of only that which arises in
one breath cycle and no more. In this way almost any difficulty becomes
manageable. Rather than focusing on how much further you wish you could go, or
comparing your meager efforts with those of someone who is more adept, you can
choose to focus on what you are accomplishing in each breath. Maybe today you
open your hip five millimeters farther, or you manage to sit comfortably in
meditation for the first time. As you investigate the tightness around your hip
you discover ways to release it; as you sit for five more minutes you discover
that those “urgent” matters were really not so urgent. It is only through these
tiny, slow, and progressive openings that deep, profound change occurs. It is
your choice to take pleasure in these small awakenings or to disregard your efforts as insignificant in the face
of how much further you have to go. You can choose to have a sense of humor
about your dilemma or fester in negativity. Whom would you like to garden
with?


When we make practice a joyful time, it is also
much more likely that we are growing more
deeply within our spiritual life. When we get hooked into striving toward where
we think we should be and how far we ought to be able to go, in truth we are
somewhere else all the time. We are in our fantasy, our ideas, our concepts, and
our judgments. There’s not much room in there to perceive and appreciate what’s
actually happening. Even when we feel pain, even when we face great difficulty,
we can take refuge in our practice. There will inevitably be times when progress
is slow, when injury or illness or life circumstances limit our ability to do
the outward forms. But this doesn’t limit our ability to plumb the depths of our
inner life.


Each day as you step onto your mat, make a
decision to enjoy just where you are right now. Take a few moments, too, to
contemplate how fortunate you are to be practicing this wonderful art. A casual
glance at the morning paper is proof enough of the vast suffering, poverty,
violence, and homelessness that is the lot of so many human beings. If you are
standing on a yoga mat and have the time to practice even fifteen minutes, you
are a fortunate person. If you have a yoga teacher, you have an invaluable gift
and life tool available to very few people. In the spirit of this gratefulness,
let your practice begin.

Donna Farhi Written by Donna Farhi

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